File history ch. 61

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Chapter 6
The Declaration
Of Independence
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6.1 Introduction
*Most Americans were shocked by the
news of the Battles of Lexington and
Concord.
*They had to choose between declaring
their independence or continuing with
protests and petitions.
Many argued for independence, like
Patrick Henry, who said, “I know not
what course others may take, but as
for me, give me liberty or give me
death!”
*Only after war had started did the
colonies decide to declare their
independence.
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Test Prep
 Who said, “I know not what course others may take; but
as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”?
 A) John Adams
 B) Patrick Henry
 C) Thomas Jefferson
 D) George Washington
 ANSWER-B) Patrick Henry
6.2 The War Begins
*On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental
Congress meets in Philadelphia.
*They choose George Washington to command
their new “continental army” made up of
troops from all over the colonies.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
*June 16, Israel Putnam leads a few hundred
men up Breed’s Hill just outside of Boston to
build a crude fort overlooking the town.
*British General William Howe sends around
2000 redcoats to attack the fort.
*Putnam orders his troops, “Don’t fire until
you see the whites of their eyes.”
*It takes the British 3 attacks before they
finally take the hill, but at a cost of over
1000 British troops
The war has begun!
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Test Prep
 Who was chosen by the Second Continental Congress
to command the new Continental Army?
 A) John Adams
 B) William Howe
 C) Henry Knox
 D) George Washington
 Answer-D) George Washington
6.3 Siege of Boston
*George Washington takes control of
the continental army a week after the
Battle of Bunker Hill.
Ticonderoga
*Desperate to get more gunpowder,
Washington sends letters to the colonies.
*He then sends Henry Knox to Fort
Ticonderoga to round up some big guns.
*As winter sets in, Knox loads 59
cannons and 2,300 pounds of lead onto
sleds and drags them 300 miles to Boston.
Boston is about to be put under siege.
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The British Abandon Boston
*On March 4, 1776, British soldiers in Boston
awake to a frightening sight; cannons aiming
down on them from nearby Dorchester
Heights.
*Rather than risk more bloodshed,
General Howe abandons the city.
*Within days more than 100 ships, 9000
British soldiers and 1000 loyalists leave
Boston Harbor for Canada.
*Some feel that the war is over, but
Washington knows it has only begun.
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Washington at Dorchester Heights
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Test Prep
 The British withdrew from Boston in 1776 after
 A) seeing cannons aimed down on them from nearby
Dorchester Heights.
 B) hearing that the colonists had formed the Continental
Army.
 C) clashing with the colonial militias at Lexington and
Concord.
 D) losing more than 1,000 men during the battle of
Bunker Hill.
 Answer- A) seeing cannons aimed down on them from
nearby Dorchester Heights.
6.4 Toward Independence
*More than a year passed between the
skirmishes at Lexington and Concord
and the British retreat from Boston.
*Most colonists still consider themselves
Loyalists.
*Their quarrel is not with Great Britain
itself, but with its policies toward the
Colonies.
The Olive Branch Petition
*June 1775 Congress sends petition to
King George III asking him to end the
quarrel. John Adams calls it an “olive
branch.”
By the time it reaches King George, he
has already declared the colonies to be
in open rebellion, and orders the “traitors”
to be brought to justice.
6.4 Continued…
Common Sense
*1776 Thomas Paine publishes a fiery
pamphlet entitled “Common Sense.”
Paine argues that:
1. The colonists do not owe loyalty to the
King.
2. American trade has suffered under
British rule.
3. America has been hurt by being
dragged into Britain’s European wars.
*Within a few months more than 120,000
copies of Common Sense are printed. It
helps persuade thousands of colonists
that independence is a key to a brighter
future.
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Test Prep
 What was the impact of Common Sense in the colonies?
 A) It persuaded many colonists that the time had come
to declare independence.
 B) It reminded colonists that they owed loyalty and
respect to King George.
 C) It encouraged the colonies to seek a peaceful
settlement with Britain.
 D) it convinced many colonists that they could not win a
war against Britain.
 Answer- A) It persuaded many colonists that the time
had come to declare independence.
Test Prep
 The purpose of the Olive Branch Petition was to
persuade
 A) British troops to leave Boston.
 B) Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
 C) King George to make peace with the colonists.
 D) volunteers to join the Continental Army.
 Answer- C) King George to make peace with the
colonists.
6.5 Thomas Jefferson Drafts a Declaration
A few weeks after the British leave Boston,
the Continental Congress appoints a
committee to write a declaration of
independence.
Thomas Jefferson is chosen to draft the
declaration.
His job is to explain to the world why the
colonies are choosing to separate from
Britain.
Natural Rights
*Jefferson argues that all people have
“natural rights” to life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness.
*He states that governments are formed
to protect these rights, and that if a
government fails to protect these rights,
the people have the right to abolish that
government.
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Test Prep
 The Declaration of Independence was written to explain
 A) why the colonists thought “taxation without
representation” was unfair.
 B) what Britain needed to do to win back the loyalty of
the colonies.
 C) why it was time for the colonies to separate from
Great Britain.
 D) what other nations could do to help the colonies with
their freedom.
 Answer- C) why it was time for the colonies to separate
from Britain.
Test Prep
 The Declaration of Independence states that all people
are born with certain rights that include the
 A) right to elect leaders who represent the people.
 B) rights to speak freely and to worship in peace.
 C) right to feel safe and secure in one’s home.
 D) right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
 Answer- D) right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness.
6.5 Continued…
The King’s Crimes
*Jefferson lists the King’s crimes
and states that George III “is unfit
to be the ruler of a free people.”
*He claims that the time has come
for the colonies’ ties to Britain to
be broken.
*…”the United Colonies ought to be
free, independent states.”
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6.6 The Final Break
*July 1, 1776, the Second Continental Congress
meets in Philadelphia’s state house to debate
independence. By the end of the day the issue
is still unresolved.
*July 2, all but one of the colonies vote for
independence. Only New York votes no.
*John Adams predicts that “the second of July
will be celebrated for generations with parades,
games, fireworks, forevermore.”
Debate Over Slavery
*Jefferson charges that King George has
violated the “sacred rights of life and liberty
of distant people by carrying them into slavery.”
*Delegates debate the issue of slavery for
two days and finally decide to keep it out
of the declaration.
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John Adams
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Triangle Trade Route of Slave
6.6 Continued…
Independence Day
*On July 4, the delegates approve a final
version of the Declaration of Independence.
*By signing it, each delegate pledges “his live,
his fortunes, and his sacred honor.”
*Each signer knows he is committing an act
of treason. Benjamin Franklin tells the
delegates, “We must all hang together or most
assuredly we shall all hang separately.”
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Test Prep
 The day on which the Declaration of Independence was
approved in 1776 is celebrated today as
 A) Thanksgiving Day.
 B) Independence Day.
 C) Memorial Day.
 D) Veterans Day.
 Answer- B) Independence Day.
6.7 Chapter Summary
*Soon after the skirmishes at Lexington
and Concord, the struggle with Great Britain
turns into all-out war.
*The Second Continental Congress elects
George Washington as the head of the
Continental Army.
*After the Battle of Bunker Hill, British troops
abandon Boston.
The Olive Branch Petition fails, and
Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.
*Thomas Jefferson is chosen to write the first
draft of the Declaration of Independence.
*July 4, 1776 declaration is signed by all
the delegates.
*For the first time in history a government is
being established on the basis of the natural
rights of people.
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