Mr. Nye’s Jeopardy RULES 1. There will be round robin play (start with team 1 and go to team 4). 2. The team who answers correctly wins the point value of the question. 3. If a team answers incorrectly, then that team will lose the number of points that the question was worth, and any other team can “ring in” by raising their hand and answer at that point. 4. There are two daily doubles available. Let’s play Energy in Heat Water in Applying Winds the Atm. Transfer the Atm. Concepts Real World 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500 500 Final Jeopardy Energy in the Atm. for 100 Energy from the sun travels as ____________ waves which reaches Earth’s surface as visible light, ____________ radiation (which helps heat Earth’s atmosphere), and some _______________ radiation. Electromagnetic waves, infrared radiation, and SOME ultraviolet radiation. Energy in the Atm. for 200 The energy from the sun enters Earth’s atmosphere and is ____________ or ____________ by clouds, gas molecules, and solid particles in the air. absorbed or reflected Energy in the Atm. for 300 Some sunlight, especially the shorter wavelengths of sunlight can be ___________, or reflected in all directions. scattered Energy in the Atm. for 400 What is the greenhouse effect? The process by which gas molecules trap heat that is radiated from Earth’s surface. Energy in the Atm. for 500 Explain why the air over land contains warmer air than the air over water during the daytime. The ground heats up more quickly than water does. So, when the ground gives off heat, the air above it is heated. On the other hand, the air above the water is cooler because the water does NOT heat up or cool down as quickly as the ground does. Heat Transfer for 100 The average energy of motion of the molecules of a substance is called _____________. temperature Heat Transfer for 200 Heat transfer by contact (such as touching a hot stove accidentally) is called _____________. conduction Heat Transfer for 300 If you place your hands near a light source (such as a lamp), your hands will be heated by which method of heat transfer? Radiation Heat Transfer for 400 Explain how a thermometer works (how temperature is measured). As the liquid inside the thermometer is heated, its molecules move faster and the liquid begins to expand. The liquid then rises in the tube of the thermometer to give a higher temperature reading. Heat Transfer for 500 Which method of heat transfer is the main way by which the troposphere is heated? Explain how this type of heat transfer heats up the troposphere. Convection: warm air rises, cold air sinks which is then heated by the heat given off by the surface. So, this warmed air rises. Then the cycle continues and the troposphere gets warmer and warmer. Winds for 100 Winds are caused by an unequal heating of Earth’s surface which causes ____________ differences. pressure Winds for 200 Wind speed is measured with a(n) ______________, and the increased cooling that the wind can cause is called the ______________. Anemometer Wind chill factor Winds for 300 What are global winds and why do they curve (what is the name of this effect)? Global winds are winds that blow from specific directions over long distances. They curve because of the Coriolis Effect, which is due to Earth’s rotation. Winds for 400 Explain how winds form. There is an unequal heating of the atmosphere that causes air to be warmer over some areas and colder over others. As warm air rises it creates an area of low pressure, then cooler air that exerts a higher pressure comes in underneath the warm air. Winds DAILY DOUBLE!!! Explain how a land breeze forms. Does a land breeze occur during the day or night? At night, the ground cools off more quickly than the water, so there is cooler air over the land and warmer air over the water. The warmer air over the water rises (creating an area of low pressure) and the cooler air moves in underneath the warm air from the land. Water in the Atm. for 100 What are the 3 processes of the water cycle (in order)? evaporation, condensation, precipitation Water in the Atm. for 200 Briefly describe the the 3 major types of clouds. Cirrus- wispy, feathery clouds that are made up of ice crystals Cumulus- fluffy, indicate fair weather Stratus- flat-layered clouds that are a dull gray color and cover much of the sky Water in the Atm. for 300 What is relative humidity and how is it measured? Relative humidity is the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a certain temperature. It is measured with a psychrometer, which contains a dry bulb and a wet bulb thermometer. The difference between the temperatures of these thermometers is used to determine the relative humidity. Water in the Atm. DAILY DOUBLE!!! If the relative humidity is 100%, then what has to be true about the dry and wet bulb temperatures? (same?, different?) Explain why this is the case. Temperatures are the same because the water will not evaporate due to the excess moisture in the air. Therefore, the wet bulb thermometer will not cool down, so the temperatures are the same. Water in the Atm. for 500 Describe how liquid water from a stream can form a cloud. Be sure to include the 2 conditions that are required for clouds to form. As the sun heats the liquid water, it turns into water vapor and rises in the atmosphere. As it rises, it cools enough to condense onto the solid particles in the air to form clouds. Applying Concepts for 100 If it is cloudy out for an entire day, will the temperature change much throughout the day? Explain why or why not. No, because the clouds will reflect the sun’s energy, so the troposphere will not be heated all that much. Applying Concepts for 200 Which global wind belt is important for the weather in the United States? Prevailing Westerlies Applying Concepts for 300 If you walked into a warm building during the winter, how would the relative humidity change (higher or lower)? Explain why. What about the reverse of this? Lower, because warm air can hold more water vapor as cold air. A cold building would have a higher relative humidity on a warm day. Applying Concepts for 400 Suppose you went on 3 different journeys using the 3 major global wind belts. Match up the global wind belt with the appropriate journey: away from the North pole, from southern Europe to South America, and from Cuba to England. Polar Easterlies- Away from the North Pole Trade Winds- From Europe to South America Prevailing Westerlies- Cuba to England Applying Concepts for 500 Based upon what you should know about heat transfer in the troposphere, explain why the air a few centimeters above the ground would be slightly warmer than the air 300 centimeters above the ground during the daytime. The ground gives off heat during the day, and this heat is transferred by conduction to the gas molecules closest to Earth’s surface, making the air warmer there than higher up. Real World for 100 Which type of wind can change direction day to day (global or local)? Local winds can change direction from day to day. Real World for 200 Mist and drizzle are forms of precipitation that are composed of water droplets. The amount of another form of precipitation, rain, is measured with a ________________. Rain gauge measures rainfall Real World for 300 On average, a snowfall of 80 centimeters would produce how many centimeters of rainfall? 8 centimeters Real World for 400 A wind vane measures wind direction. Which way does a wind vane point (the direction the wind is coming from OR the direction the wind is blowing)? Which direction would a wind vane point for a North wind? Hint: A North wind blows from the _____________ toward the ______________. A wind vane points in the direction the wind is coming from. A North wind blows from the North toward the South, so the wind vane would point towards the North. Real World for 500 What is the difference between sleet and freezing rain? Describe how they form. Freezing rain forms when rain hits a cold surface that is below freezing, which causes the water to freeze on contact with the cold surface. This creates ice on the cold surface. Sleet is when rain falls through a layer of air that is below freezing and forms ice that falls to Earth’s surface. Heat Transfer Explain how the troposphere is heated by all three methods of heat transfer. Radiation from the sun and from Earth’s surface transfer heat into the atmosphere via electromagnetic waves. Conduction heats the troposphere when the Earth’s surface gives off heat and this heat is absorbed by the gas molecules closest to Earth’s surface. Convection heats the troposphere by warm air rising and cold air sinking, then the cold air is warmed by the heat given off by Earth’s surface.