By: Rain Cinco, Theodora Danias, Michelle Fong, Alyssa Iglesias, Katrina Kerolus, Anumta Raheel Period 8 THE RISE OF ISLAM 7th century C.E.- Islam emerged in Arabian Peninsula Arab conquerors were able to expand the empire within one century- from N. India to Iberian Peninsula Islam spread to three continents: Asia, Africa, and Europe Rapid expansion influenced development of trade and the exchange of ideas. Caliphates: Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid ISLAMIC TRADE ROUTES- POST CLASSICAL ERA (600-1450 AD) The Islamic Empire was a center for trade built an enormous and profitable trade network over land and sea Mediterranean Sea to Europe Caspian Sea and Volga River Russia Islamic traders made it all the way to the shores of China by sailing the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION Overland trade: Travel mostly done by camel caravan Used extensive road networks that were built during the classical era by India, Persia, and the Mediterranean Basin Maritime Trade Borrowed compass from Chinese Borrowed the lateen sail from Southeast Asian and Indian Mariners Borrowed Astrolabe from Hellenistic Mediterranean Arab and Persian mariners sailed throughout the Indian Ocean Basin ISLAM AND MEDIEVAL EUROPE: POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMICAL IMPACTS Political Battle of Tours in 732 AD stopped the Muslim advance into Europe and left only Spain in Muslim control. In 1096 Western Christians marched through the Byzantine Empire to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims. This conflict brought about the end of the feudal system in Western Europe. ISLAM AND MEDIEVAL EUROPE CONT. Economic Increased interaction with the Islamic Empire during the Crusades led to a revival of European trade with Asia. This trade led to a rise in the economic prosperity of Western Europe Intellectual/Arts Increased interaction with the Islamic Empire as a result of the Crusades opened Europeans up to new knowledge of science, medicine, and technology from the Muslims. the Europeans discovered their own past within a different region of the world Renaissance. Europeans adopted Hindi numerals from the Muslims ARAB/ISLAMIC EMPIRES AND CHINA In 751 CE, the Abbasid Dynasty defeated a Chinese army at the Battle of Talas River This ended expansion of Tang Dynasty into Central Asia and allowed the spread of Islam among Turkish peoples Borrowed compass from the Chinese Silk Road trade flourished Silk and ceramics from China TRANS AND SUB-SAHARAN TRADE Political Trade kingdoms emerged in West Africa – Ghana, Mali, & Songhay and rulers converted to Islam to gain trade advantages Eastern coastal city-states gained power as rulers converted to Islam Economic Crossed the Sahara by camel caravan to trade salt, steel, copper, glass, and slaves from West Africa Animal skins from Eastern Africa ARAB/ISLAMIC EMPIRES AND AFRICA Intellectual/Arts & Religion The Trans-Saharan trade routes helped to spread Islam to West Africa Mali ruler Mansa Musa observed Islamic tradition by making his pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) in 1324-1325. Local beliefs mixed with Islamic beliefs Swahili – mix of Bantu and Arabic became widespread Arabic became the first written language in West Africa MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA Arab forces entered India as early as the mid 7th century before the establishment of the Umayyad caliphate entered South Asia via merchants and later conquered Northern territories of India and eventually spread to Southeast Asia Few Islamic converts were won forcefully but easily converted lower castes through the ideas of equality of the believers. The Hindu social structure was more restrictive than that of the Muslims. Muslims living in India adopted many aspects of Hindu culture. SOUTH ASIA/INDIA AND THE ISLAMIC EMPIRES Mahmud of Ghazni, leader of the Turks in Afghanistan, led raids of India between 1001 and 1027. Mahmud demolished Hindu and Buddhist sites Buddhism declined. Mosques or Islamic shrines were constructed on the sites where Hindu and Buddhist structures were destroyed. The Sind (Northern India) were conquered by Arab Muslims and passed to Abbasids INDIAN OCEAN TRADE NETWORK The Indian Ocean Trade Network thrived as Muslim merchants traded with Indian and Chinese merchants. INDIAN OCEAN TRADE area of rapid Muslim expansion. Maritime trade network across the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Maritime trade in India expanded due to the rising prosperity of Asian, European, and African states and the resulting demand for luxury goods. CROSS-CULTURAL TRADE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN What did they trade? Silk and porcelain from China Spices from southeast Asia Pepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from India Incense and horses from Arabia and southwest Asia Gold, ivory, and slaves from east Africa Maritime technology: Lateen sail and new ship-building techniques Dhows and junks--large ships involved in maritime trade in Indian Ocean INDIAN OCEAN TRADE Trade took place in three distinct regions: The South China Sea- Chinese and Malays dominated trade From the east coast of India to the islands of Southeast Asia- Indians and Malays dominated trade. From the west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa- Persians and Arabs dominated trade. Increased interaction with the Islamic Empire during the Crusades led to a revival of European trade with Asia. This trade led to a rise in the economic prosperity of Western Europe. MONSOONS Monsoon winds changed direction at regular and predictable times Indians were the first people to “ride” the monsoon winds Southern monsoons brought rainfall for crops and farming Supplement to irrigation systems ASSESSMENT!! 1) To what three continents did Islam spread to (during the post-classical era)? a. b. c. d. Europe, Australia, and Asia Europe, Africa, and Canada Europe, Africa, and Asia None of the above CORRECT ANSWER: C ASSESSMENT 2) Which West African ruler performed the Hajj? a) b) c) d) Genghis Khan Mansa Musa Muhammad Marco Polo CORRECT ANSWER: B ASSESSMENT 3) True or False: Islam traded with Russia through the Volga River and Caspian Sea. CORRECT ANSWER: TRUE ASSESSMENT 4) What were the names of the ships used in maritime trade in the Indian Ocean? CORRECT ANSWER: DHOWS AND JUNKS ASSESSMENT 5) True or False? Islam was dominant in southern India. Answer: False, Islam spread to the Sind sultanate in Northern India, Southern India remained predominantly Hindu. ASSESSMENT 6) Arab Muslims imported ______ from China a. Silk, only b. Bananas c. Silk and ceramics (chinaware) d. None of the above CORRECT ANSWER: C THE ISLAMIC EMPIRES AND INDIAN OCEAN TRADE There's lots of commotion In the Indian Ocean Must be the trade The Arabs made Overland or maritime, they were both successful The Indians and Arabs were ever so fruitful THE END!