Nine Parts of Desire Adriana Gonzalez History -American media not allowed in Iran after U.S. Embassy occupation in 1979 -Khomeini convinced women that the concealing cloak was an act of revolution, causing them to risk their lives facing shah’s army for a return of laws that allowed child marriage, polygamy and wife beating -1967: Egypt loses to Israel in Six-Day War (blamed secularism of government)> veiled women increase -Iran’s theocratic revolution: hijab becomes political as well as religious act (1935)> Reza Shah banned chador (wanted modern country) Customs • -Islam encourages wives to be beautiful for their husbands • -Wives remove body hair every 20 days, men every 40 days • -Women dye their hair for their husbands • -Iran threatened eighty-lash penalty for women, even foreigners, who flouted the Islamic dress code. Along with hair, all skin except face and hands and all curves of the body had to be concealed. • -Since the revolution, only men are allowed to swim in public • -No alcohol • -Party dress for women consisted of chadors, long pants, socks, calflength tunics, magnehs • -hijab interpreted differently across countries • -Women, if following sunnah, can only show body parts including, curves, ankles, wrists, neck, shoulders all be concealed from men except her husband and men she is forbade form marrying according to the Koran (father, brothers, father-in-law, nephews, sons, stepsons, pre-pubescent boys, or male adolescents that ‘lack vigor’) Salwar kameezPakistan Chadris- Afghanistan Stiff, birdlike masks of black and gold- dubai Head scarves- Egypt/ Palestine 360 degrees black cloaks- Saudi Arabia Terms • -chadors= big black squares of fabric tossed over the head and falling to the ankles • -ayatollah=”relfection of God”, applied to the most learned of the Shiite clergy • -Sunni Muslims= majority of early Muslims who agreed, after Muhammad’s death, that their leader should be appointed by consensus of elders, as was tradition • -Shiites Muslims= minority of Muslims that felt that Muhammad’s successor should come from within his own family (son-in-law/ cousin Ali) • -Origins as dissenters give Shiites an obligation to question those in power, and revolt against them if necessary • -Origins also lie in defeat of Ali and his sons: leads to profound identification of Shiites with the beaten and poor Terms, ConT’d • -magneh=hood made of a circle of fabric like a nun’s wimple that falls over head and shoulder, leaving just a hole for the face • -hijab= “curtain”, used in the Koran as n instruction to believers of Muhammad’s day on how they should deal with the prophet’s wives: “If you ask his vices for anything, speak to them from behind a curtain. This is purer for your hearts and their hearts” • -sunnah= “the trodden path” of Muhammadthose things which he had said, done or permitted to be done in his presence (informs “that which is apparent” includes ankles, wrists, neck) Quotes • -“Why do you wear a heavy veil when a simple scarf would do?” (17) • -“(I’d been running to board a helicopter to get to Khomeini’s graveside, and the gust form the rotor had momentarily blown the chador aside, revealing my trousers and shirt beneath. ‘Cover yourself!’ the official yelled, his face full of loathing.)” (17) • -“You know, of course, that there are two kinds of IslamAmerican Islam and Muhammad’s Islam- and in Turkey we have American Islam. In American Islam, religion is separated from politics, because it suits the superpower interests. Our government is very much afraid of Islamic revolution, because it wants to grovel to the West” (19). • -“Tel the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms” (21) • -“Part of the philosophy of Islamic dress is for a woman to project an aura of calm and tranquility” (23). Relating to Diversity • • -In both cases, women are expected to sacrifice their comfort and freedom to service the requirements of male sexuality; either to repress or to stimulate the male sex urge – This form of diversity is completely detrimental to one group of people (out-group, women) at the expense of another. This is a form of a parasitic relationship, which can lead to power struggle and multiple injustices – Equality may not be in the forebrain of many women traditionally obedient to the Koran (patriarchal society), but respect is a must -“I asked Hamideh if Khomeini could ever be wrong in a religious ruling. “For sure,” she said. “We don’t believe any human being is infallible. But if I follow his fatwa, and it’s wrong- say I kill someone he orders me to, and the person is innocent- the person I killed will go to paradise, and the sin of the killing is on the one who is issued the fatwa, not on me” (26) – -This form of diversity places blame on one leading party, omitting the flaws of his/her followers. No responsibility needs to be taken by followers, other than abiding by their leader’s laws- this will inevitably cause a state of conflict between different sects and amongst other cultures RELATING TO DIVERSITY • -Chador was “trench” against Western values (26). – Covering themselves with veils and adhering to traditional ritual may be a source of community within Middle Eastern countries as a stand against Western influence. Diversity is cherished in this sense, and homogeny undesired • -“Of course, I don’t like anyone to insult my father, but he was always ready to forgive anything aimed at him personally. It was attacks on Islam that he couldn’t forgive” (30). – -Diversity in the understanding of particular actions. It was not acceptable to break Islamic rule- the father would commit heinous crimes against such perpetrators. But as a person, he forgave on the regular. Different circumstances result in a diverse list of acceptable actions in such a culture • -Men required by Koran to cover from naval to knee- very often broken (example of men’s soccer games) – Diversity amongst rules that are so strictly adhered to by females. Males are obviously the controlling, top-down force here, with their ability to place females in a position of concealment or shame is solely for their own sexual purposes (desire and refrain struggling within them). Responsibility is then placed completely in the hands of the female in terms of the male’s sexual urges- a requirement that is completely unfair.