Before We Begin The introduction of Islam into India marks an important change in India’s history. The question is whether or not Islam and Hinduism can live together. Modern India, at the time of independence from Britain, decided it could not and so split into India and Pakistan in 1947. You will see that change in India comes from the northwest through Afghanistan, as did the Aryan societies, but now sea ports also open the subcontinent to change. Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms After the Gupta Dynasty collapsed in the sixth century, India divided into many regional authorities much like Europe after the fall of Rome. Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms The Quest for Centralized Imperial Rule Many small kingdoms of northern India were almost at constant war until the period of the Mughal dynasty in the sixteenth century. However, Harsha, a dynamic warrior, was able to bring northern India under centralized control for a period of time. Buddhist, but tolerated other faiths. Generous – Providing health care and building hospitals. After his assassination India fell back into a period of small, warring kingdoms. The Introduction of Islam into Northern India Spread into India in 3 ways Conquests of Arab forces in northwest India by 711 C.E. Muslim Merchants in coastal regions and their intermarriage with local women scattered Muslims throughout coastal cities. Eleventh century invasion of Mahmud Ghazni Seventeen raids into India to plunder and demolish its Buddhist temples, hastening the disappearance of Buddhism from its place of origin. Continue conquest by attacking Hindu regions in South India Little success in convert people to Islam, as a result Islam becomes religion of a small minority in South India. The Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India Southern 2/3 of India managed to avoid intense conflicts of the north. Small kingdoms like the North Two kingdoms managed to establish control of large parts of southern India for short periods of time. The Chola Kingdom – Southern tip of India 400 years of control Kingdom of Vijayanagar – Western Deccan plateau for a century. Devoted to Hindu, but tolerated and encouraged Muslim Merchants. Production and Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Agricultural surplus in India allowed the growth of industry and trade in the postclassical period. Merchant and artisan guilds became more important but the caste system remained in place. Production and trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Agriculture in the Monsoon World Spring and summer brought the moist southwest winds off the Indian Ocean to water the crops in the wet season. Dry season – Northeast fall and winter winds blew cold, dry air from the mountains that left the land parched. Meant massive irrigation projects were necessary to maintain crop production. This lead to massive population increases 105 Million by 1500 CE Production and Trade in Indian Ocean Basin Trade and Economic Development in Southern India Staple crops of rice, barley, millet, and wheat. Iron and copper Salt and Pepper (Could only get these in a few places around the world) Hindu temples served as the center of community, agricultural endeavors, and trade. Made temples powerful Production and trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Access to the Indian Ocean allowed for cross-cultural trading. Dependent on the monsoon seasons and winds Built Warehouses as a result because trade came in waves. Indian cities became diverse hubs of trade Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, and Jewish merchants all interacting in one place. Production and Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Caste and Society Wealth brought from trade made the caste system more complex and the caste distinctions more prominent. Hindu temples’ power increase contributed to this. The Meeting of Hindu and Islamic Traditions Jainism and Buddhism lost followers and Hinduism and Islam increased their positions in India. Today in India, there are a few very small communities of Jainists and Buddhists. Hinduism and Islam are very different, but both managed to prosper in India. Hinduism – Many gods and goddesses Islam – Monotheistic belief in Allah The Meeting of Hindu and Islamic Traditions The Development of Hinduism Islamic armies destroyed many Buddhists sites during conflicts in Northern India Benefited from Buddhism’s declining numbers Individuals and families who took on Hinduism began to choose favorite gods within the Hindu pantheon. Devoted themselves to intense worship of those chosen gods in a hope to become unified with them, thus achieving salvation. Shiva and Vishnu in southern India were the devotional cults that gained the widest following. The Meeting of Hindu and Islamic Traditions Islam and Its Appeal At first, outside of coastal cities, there was little incentive for Indians to convert to Islam because it was viewed as the religion of their conquerors, and was a scary concept. Over time, however, Islam became more appealing because of its message of equality for all caste members. During the twelfth century, the bhakti movement in southern India attempted to blend the two religions. Was not very successful, but it did serve to connect the two communities. The Influence of Indian Society in Southeast Asia Over a thousand year period, the peoples and governments of southeast Asia were profoundly affected by Hindu merchants who first brought them Indian political structures and religions, and, later, by Muslim merchants. The Influence of Indian Society in Southeast Asia The States of Southeast Asia In the first millenium C.E., Indian Merchants were a common sight in southeast Asia Traded products with local elites for spices, pearls, and animal skins. Rulers used trade wealth to gain political power. Often sponsored Indian traditions and Hinduism and Buddhism in their kingdoms Examples – Vietnam and Cambodia The Influence of Indian Society in Southeast Asia The Arrival of Islam Similar to adoption of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia Integrated Islam into local traditions to allow for better communication with Muslim traders and support their political power. Conversion areas included the Malayan peninsula and present-day Indonesia. Melaka Kingdom (Islamic) grew powerful by controlling commerce that moved between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.