APQ1JOINTSCHAP8

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CHAPTER 8
ARTICULATIONS
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION
 FIBROUS
 DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE HOLDING THEM
TOGETHER; LOTS OF COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
 CARTILAGINOUS
 CONNECTED BY HYALINE OR FIBROCARTILAGE
 SYNOVIAL
 MORE COMPLEX; ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; JOINT
CAPSULE AND SYNOVIAL CAPUSULE WITH
SYNOVIAL FLUID
CLASSIFICATION
 SYNARTHROTIC
 IMMOVEABLE
 AMPHIARTHROTIC
 SLIGHTY MOVEABLE
 DIARTHROTIC
 FREELY MOVEABLE
FIBROUS JOINTS
 SYNDESMOSIS
 INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE OR INTEROSSEOUS LIGAMENT
JOINS BONES;
 AMPHIARTROTIC: TWISTS
 EX: TIBIA AND FIBULA
 SUTURE
 SUTURAL LIGAMENT: THIN LAYER OF DENSE CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
 SYNARTHROTIC
 EX: FLAT BONES OF SKULL; CORONAL SUTURE
 GOMPHOSIS
 CONE SHAPED BONY PROCESS IN A BODY SOCKET
 SYNARTHROTIC
 PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT JOINS TEETH TO MAXILLA OR
MANDIBLE
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
 SYNCHONDROSIS
 HYALINE CARTILAGE BANDS
 MANY TEMPORARY
 EX: EPIPHYSEAL PLATE; BECOMES A SYNOSTOSIS:
BONY JOINT: SYNARTHROTIC; MANUBRIUM AND
FIRST RIB; COSTAL CARTILAGE AND STERNUM
 SYMPHYSIS
 THIN LAYER OF HYALINE CARTILAGE ON BONE
WITH A FIBROCARTILAGE PAD
 AMPHIARTHROTIC
 EX: SYMPHYSIS PUBIS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS;
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
 DIARTHROTIC
 STRUCTURE:
http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20I%20Types%20of%20Joints.htm
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF JOINT
CAPSULE
 ARTICULAR CARTILAGE:
 HYALINE CARTILAGE ON BONE
 REDUCES FRICTION: REDUCES WEAR
 JOINT CAPSULE/ARTICULAR CAPSULE
 2 LAYERS; HOLDS BONES TOGETHER;
 OUTER LAYER DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, FIBERS ATTACH TO
PERIOSTEUM
 PERMITS MOVEMENT BUT RESISTS PULLING APART
 LIGAMENTS
 COLLAGENOUS FIBER BUNDLES
 PREVENTS EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT
 SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
 INNER LAYER OF JOINT CAPSULE, MAY HAVE VILLI AND FOLDS (?)
 FEW LAYERS THICK, SURROUNDS JOINT CAVITY
 SECRETES AND REABSORBS SYNOVIAL FLUID
 MAY STORE ADIPOSE TISSUE; FORM FATTY PADS
J0INT CAPSULE CONTINUED
 SYNOVIAL FLUID
 CLEAR, VISCOUS FLUID
 LUBRICATION
 SUPPLIES CARTILAGE WITH NUTRIENTS
 HAS STEM CELLS: MAY HELP LIGAMENT
RESTORATION
 MENISCI
 BURSAE
MENISCUS
http://depts.washington.edu/msatlas/knmen.html
BURSA
http://www.easyfizzy.co.il/image/users/46789/ftp/my_files/prepburs.gif
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
 BALL-AND –SOCKET/SPHEROIDAL
 CONDYLAR/ELLIPSOIDAL
 PLANE/GLIDING/ARTHROIDAL
 HINGE/GINGLYMUS
 PIVOT/TROCHOID
 SADDLE/SELLAR
BALL-AND-SOCKET
http://www.hss.edu/images/articles/FAI.jpg
CONDYLAR JOINT
http://www.msdlatinamerica.com/ebooks/HandSurgery/sid211984.html
PLANE JOINT
www.ithaca.edu/faculty/lahr/LE2000/Back/Jointpage.htm
HINGE JOINT
www.vermontorthoclinic.org/elbow.html
PIVOT JOINT
http://faculty.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/AP1pages/Units5to9/joints/synovial.htm
SADDLE JOINT
www.becomehealthynow.com/popups/joint_saddle_bh.htm
JOINT MOVEMENTS

BALL-AND-SOCKET



CONDYLAR



UNIAXIAL
FLEXION AND EXTENSION
PIVOT



UNIAXIAL
BOUND IN MEMBRANE SO MOVEMENT IS LIMITED
SLIDING; TWISTING
HINGE



FLEXION; EXTENSION; ADDUCTION; ABDUCTION; CIRCUMDUCTION; NO ROTATION;
BIAXIAL: ALLOWS MOVEMENT IN SAGITTAL AND FRONTAL PLANES
PLANE




MOVEMENTS IN ALL PLANES INCLUDING ROTATION; ALL MOVEMENTS
MULTIAXIAL
UNIAXIAL
ROTATION
SADDLE


FLEXION; EXTENSION; ADDUCTION; ABDUCTION; CIRCUMDUCTION; LITTLE TO NO
ROTATION;
BIAXIAL: ALLOWS MOVEMENT IN SAGITTAL AND FRONTAL PLANES
KNOW THE JOINT MOVEMENTS
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
GCgaoRdeaU&feature=player_detailpage
KNOW THE JOINTS AND LIGAMENT
 SHOULDER
 ELBOW
 HIP
 KNEE
SHOULDER JOINT
http://www.stockmedicalart.com/medicalartlibrary/shoulder-joint-ligaments.html
HIP JOINT
http://www.netterimages.com/images/vpv/000/000/008/8638-0550x0475.jpg
KNEE JOINT
http://adam.about.com/encyclopedia/The-structure-of-a-joint.htm
LIFE SPAN CHANGES
 STIFFNESS
 BY 40S COLLAGEN STRUCTURE DEGENERATES
 FIBROUS JOINTS
 FIRST: FONTANELS
 ACCUMULATE BONE MATRIX, COULD FUSE,
 STRENGTHEN OVER LIFE
 SYNCHONDROSES
 EPIPHYSEAL PLATE
 MANUBRIUM & 1ST JOINT: WATER CONTENT DECREASES
& CALCIUM SALT DEPOSITION INCREASES: STIFFENS
CARTILAGE; LIGAMENTS LOSE ELASTICITY AS
COLLAGEN FIBERS CROSS LINK; AFFECTS BREATHING
LIFE SPAN CHANGES
 SYMPHYSIS:
 LOSS OF WATER DECREASES FLEXIBILITY;
 LOSS OF ABILITY FOR SHOCK ABSORBANCY
 LESS RANGE OF MOTION
 LOSS OF HEIGHT
 SYNOVIAL
 LOSS OF FUNCTION BY 30S
 LESS CAPILLARIES=LESS BLOOD FLOW AND AN
INCREASE IN CARTILAGE AND FIBROUS MATERIAL+
LOSS OF ELASTICITY WHICH COULD AFFECT
BALANCE= MORE FALLS
LIFE SPAN CHANGES
 PREVENTION:
 USE: EXERCISE, INCREASES BLOOD SUPPLY AND
REDUCES STIFFENING
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