SEPTEMBER TH 25 2014 AT PHILOSOPHY CLUB ANNOUNCEMENTS Dues are $20 (optional) Submit your T-shirt design on Facebook Winner of the club t-shirt design gets his/her T-shirt free! First social will be in November SCHOLARSHIPS PLATO High School Essay Contest http://plato-philosophy.org/plato-2013-14-high-schoolessay-contest/ “The PLATO High School Essay Contest awards will be given to the best philosophical essays written by high school students, in response to the year’s contest essay question. In addition to first, second and third place prizes, there will be two honorable mention awards.” First place – $250 Second place – $150 Third place – $100 SCHOLARSHIPS International Philosophy Olympiad 2015 http://www.philosophy-olympiad.org/ http://precollegephilosophy.blogspot.com/ https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BwOyR5OJBP3oUzU3M0Z sTE11NWs/edit “To enter this competition, participants must submit an essay of no more than 1200 words on a philosophy topic of your choice in Spanish, French, or German.” If you are interested, you MUST talk to either to Tommy or Mr. Kaul after club. SCHOLARSHIPS Kids Philosophy Slam http://www.philosophyslam.org/rules_fin.html#high “High school students may write an essay of 500 words or less, answering the philosophical question: “(Insert 2015 question here)” Students may write essays based on research, historical context and philosophical references, though personal experiences and observations may also be included. Four finalists from this category will be announced in April and "The Most Philosophical Student in America" will then be determined by a national philosophical panel of judges and announced in May of 2015.” “Over $3,000 in prizes” SCHOLARSHIPS Society of Professional Journalists High School Essay Contest http://www.spj.org/a-hs.asp Last Year’s Topic: “Why is it important that we have news media that are independent of the government?” First-place: $1,000 Scholarship Second-place: $500 Scholarship Third-place: $300 Scholarship SCHOLARSHIP Signet Essay Contest 2015 http://www.penguin.com/services-academic/essayhome/ 1. Henry Higgins, the leading man in Pygmalion and My Fair Lady, may be considered an anti-hero, a character who acts in ways contrary to conventional literary representations of heroism. What qualities mark him as an anti-hero? 2. When Eliza threatens to leave Henry in Act 5 of Pygmalion, Henry defends himself, saying, “I care for life, for humanity….What more can you or anyone ask?” In light of Henry’s behavior throughout the play, does this self-justification seem satisfactory? What are the pitfalls of caring for life and humanity in general, as Henry does, but neglecting to consider the needs of individuals? Etc… Prize (5 winners): $1000 scholarship $1,600 donation to our school library! ANARCHISM AND COMMUNISM HOLD YOUR HORSES OF OPINIONS WHAT IS COMMUNISM? A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. OTHER TERMS • Socialism - A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole. • Proletariat - The laboring class; especially : The class of industrial workers who lack their own means of production and hence sell their labor to live. • Materialism - A theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organized. • Class - A social stratum whose members share certain economic, social, or cultural characteristics. • Bourgeoisie/Capitalist - The class which controls the means of production, therefore owning all of the wealth. • “Means of Production” - Capital assets used to produce wealth, such as machinery, tools and factories • Vanguardism (Vanguard Party) - A strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies. KARL MARX • The father of Communism and Marxism • Class Struggle is the inherent root of conflict in society. • Society is divided up into 2 classes: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat • Materialism is the reasons behind wars in history. • History is: Primitive -> Slave -> Feudalism - > Capitalism -> Socialism - > Communism • Workers will eventually overthrow the ruling class and make a classless society. SCHOOLS OF COMMUNISM • Marxist-Leninism • Stalinism • Maoism • Trotskyism • Anarcho-Communism • Christian Communism MARXIST-LENINISM • Different from Classic Marxism • Promoted the use of a vanguard party to lead the workers revolution • State monopoly and political repression was A-ok to achieve the goals of a socialist revolution • “Socialism in One Country” • Invented by Vladimir Lenin and used to an extreme by Stalin QUESTIONS RAISED BY COMMUNISM • Is Capitalism repressive, or does it just favors those who win the competition? • Who should control the “means of production”? • Is history materialistic? • Will the State dissolve away? • Is Communist dictatorship more important than democracy to achieve stateless communism? NO ITS NOT THE PURGE… ANARCHISM CLEARING UP 4 BIG MISCONCEPTIONS 1. Anarchy does not mean “chaos” 2. No state does not mean no government or organization 3. Anarchists are inherently violent to cause destruction 4. No destruction is needed to achieve anarchy or communism. WHAT IS ANARCHISM? A political theory holding all forms of governmental authority to be unnecessary and undesirable* and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups. FAMOUS ANARCHIST PHILOSOPHERS - Henry David Thoreau Max Stirner Mikhail Bakunin Peter Kropotkin Rudolf Rocker Alexander Berkman Murray Bookchin Noam Chomsky John Zerzan SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT • AnarchoCommunism • Anarcho-Syndicalism • Anarcho-Capitalism • Anarcho-Primitivism • Anarcha-Feminism COMPLETE OPPOSITES ANARCHOCOMMUNISM ANARCHOCAPITALISM DISCUSSION QUESTIONS • Is the state legitimate? • Are people inherently greedy or cooperative (within their communities)? • Does a free society have market economics or economic control? • Do individuals have a right over their own body? • Are all social hierarchies legitimate , if so, to what extent? • What is better: Direct Democracy or Representative Democracy?