Pronouns - Using Pronouns Correctly Holt PowerPoint

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Using Pronouns Correctly
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The nominative case
The objective case
The possessive case
Solving special pronoun problems
Appositives
Elliptical constructions
Reflexive and intensive pronouns
Who and whom
Review A
Review B
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
A pronoun takes the place
of a noun.
TheHe
rider approaches slowly.
them
The rider watches the longhorns
closely.
TheHis
rider’s horse is well trained.
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
Case is the form that a pronoun takes to show its
relationship to other words in a sentence.
Nominative
Objective
Possessive
Singular
First person
I
me
my, mine
Second person
you
you
your, yours
Third person
he, she, it
him, her, it
his, her, hers,
its
Plural
First person
we
us
our, ours
Second person
you
you
your, yours
Third person
they
them
their, theirs
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The nominative case
Pronouns in the nominative case are used as
subjects and as predicate nominatives.
Nominative case pronouns
First person
I, we
Second person
you, you
Third person
he, she, it, they
Subject
We compete in several sports.
Predicate nominative
The winner in the high hurdles was he.
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The nominative case
Make sure the subject of a verb is in the
nominative case.
Subject
Rob and his
histhey
friends
friends shot some baskets.
they
Nominative
them case
?
?
Subject
Then Rob
Rob
he played by himself for an hour.
Nominative
him case
?
he
?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The nominative case
Make sure a predicate nominative is in the
nominative case.
Predicate nominative
The team leaders were Tom and
theySara.
Sara
they
them case
?Nominative
?
Predicate nominative
The more experienced caver is Sara.
Sara
she
Nominative
her case?
she
?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the pronoun in parentheses.
1. Cynthia and (me, I) took scuba-diving lessons.
2. Wyatt and (she, her) will pass out the sheet music.
3. How did you guess the winner would be (he, him)?
4. You and (we, us) raised the most money for the dance.
5. The children on the parade float were (they, them).
[End of Section]
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The objective case
Pronouns in the objective case are used as direct
objects, indirect objects, and objects of
prepositions.
Objective case
pronouns
First
person
me, us
Second you, you
person
Third
person
him, her,
it, them
Direct object
Carmen has invited me to her party.
Indirect object
My uncle gave it a tuneup.
Object of preposition
Don’t you sit in front of me in class?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The objective case
A direct object should be in the objective case.
Direct object
My uncle took ______
us to the
State Fair.
Objective
case
we
?
us
?
Direct object
I saw Barbara and ______
them on
the Ferris wheel.
them
?
Objective
theycase?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The objective case
An indirect object should be in the objective case.
Indirect object
Tony found _____
them a new home.
them
they case
? Objective
?
Indirect object
He gave Teresa and _____
her the tiny kittens.
Objective
she case
?
her
?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The objective case
An object of a preposition should be in the
objective case.
Object of preposition
Aside from _____,
us who else will be coming?
we
Objective
case
?
us
?
Object of preposition
The package was addressed to you and _____.
me
me
? Objective Icase ?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the pronoun in parentheses.
1. The guests thanked Rita and (she, her) for the party.
2. The first guests to arrive were (they, them).
3. Are Gloria and (I, me) playing in the first match?
4. What were you telling Chuck and (we, us) earlier?
5. An e-mail from (he, him) just arrived.
[End of Section]
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The possessive case
Pronouns in the possessive case are used to show
ownership or possession.
Possessive case pronouns
First person
my, mine, our, ours
Second person
your, yours
Third person
his, her, hers, its, their, theirs
My car won’t start.
We’ll have to ride in hers.
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The possessive case
The possessive pronouns mine, yours, his, hers,
its, ours, and theirs are used in the same ways
pronouns in the nominative and objective cases
are used.
Subject
Predicate nominative
Direct object
Indirect object
Object of preposition
Her sister and mine play soccer.
This tennis racquet is hers.
Have you finished yours yet?
His father gave ours a tour.
Apart from his, no score was perfect.
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
The possessive case
The possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, its,
and their are used as adjectives before nouns.
Does your brother play the guitar?
Where does he buy his guitar strings?
What are the cases of personal pronouns?
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct
form of the pronoun in parentheses.
1. Robert has trained (him, his) new puppy.
2. (They, Them) brought cheese and crackers to the party.
3. The college sent some information to (we, us).
4. Make sure (your, yours) name is on every page.
5. Carla has completed her application, but I haven’t
started (my, mine).
[End of Section]
Solving special pronoun problems
Appositives
A pronoun used as an appositive should be in the
same case as the word to which it refers.
Subject
Appositive
Both teachers,
teachers,Mr.
Mr.
Mr.Petrakis
Petrakis
Petrakisand
and
and___,
___,
he coach
coachthe
theteam.
team.
The appositive identifies the subject,
teachers.
Since a subject is in the nominative
case, a pronoun in an appositive
identifying a subject should also be
in the nominative case.
Solving special pronoun problems
Appositives
A pronoun used as an appositive should be in the
same case as the word to which it refers.
Direct
object
Appositive
Joeland
and___,
me for
The director chose us,
us, Joel
Joel
and
___,
for major
major roles.
roles.
The appositive identifies the direct
object, us.
Since a direct object is in the objective
case, a pronoun in an appositive
identifying a direct object should also
be in the objective case.
Solving special pronoun problems
Elliptical constructions
A pronoun following than or as in an elliptical
construction should be in the same case as it
would be if the construction were completed.
Completed
Elliptical
Completed
Elliptical
The tenor sang louder than he sang.
The tenor sang louder than he.
The accident hurt Tim as much as the
accident hurt her.
The accident hurt Tim as much as her.
Solving special pronoun problems
Reflexive and intensive pronouns
Reflexive and intensive pronouns have the same
forms.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
First person
myself, ourselves
Second person
yourself, yourselves
Third person
himself, herself, itself, themselves
Reflexive
I think I will treat myself to a movie.
Intensive
Evelyn herself raked all the leaves.
Solving special pronoun problems
Reflexive and intensive pronouns
Do not use a pronoun ending in –self or –selves
instead of a personal pronoun.
Nonstandard
Standard
Mariah and myself
went to the rodeo.
I
Myself does not refer to or emphasize
any other word.
Nonstandard
Standard
Can I depend on Jay and yourself?
you
Yourself does not refer to or emphasize
any other word.
Solving special pronoun problems
On Your Own
Choose the correct form of the pronoun in parentheses to
correct each sentence below.
1. He remained true to (him, himself) and his own values.
2. Can she really be six months older than (I, me)?
3. Mr. Webster gave a prize to his best students, Tim and
(we, us).
4. We promised that we would do all the carpentry work
(ourself, ourselves).
5. The mural was painted by two seniors, Chad and (he,
him).
[End of Section]
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
The use of who or whom in a subordinate clause
depends on how the pronoun functions in the
clause.
Nominative case
Objective case
who whoever
whom whomever
Subject
Is there someone here who can help me?
Object of a preposition
Sharla, whom I practice with, is a good tutor.
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
To choose between who and whom in a
subordinate clause, follow these steps:
STEP 1
Find the subordinate clause.
Subordinate clause
Do you know (who, whom) borrowed the ladder?
The subordinate clause is (who, whom)
borrowed the ladder.
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
STEP 2
Decide how the pronoun is used in the clause.
Subject?
Predicate
nominative?
Direct object?
Indirect object?
Object of
preposition?
(who, whom) borrowed the ladder
The pronoun is used as the subject
of the verb borrowed.
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
STEP 3
Determine what case the pronoun should be in.
Subject
Is a subject in
the nominative
or objective
case?
(who, whom) borrowed the ladder
The subject should be in the
nominative case.
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
STEP 4
Select the correct form of the pronoun.
Nominative
case
who
Objective
case
whom
(who,
whom) borrowed
borrowed the
the ladder
ladder
(who, whom)
The nominative form is who.
Answer
Do you know who borrowed the
ladder?
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
Apply the steps to the following sentence:
Those are the teachers (who, whom) I want.
1. Find the subordinate clause.
(who, whom) I want
2. Decide how the pronoun is used
in the clause.
direct object—I want
(who, whom)
3. Determine what case the pronoun should be in.
4. Select the correct form of the pronoun.
objective
whom
Answer Those are the teachers whom I want.
Solving special pronoun problems
Who and whom
On Your Own
Choose the correct form, who or whom, to complete each
sentence below.
1. The child _____ fell off the swing is not hurt.
2. There goes Fred, _____ I sit behind in chemistry class.
3. Are they the teammates with _____ you work out?
4. Everyone has guessed _____ the winner will be.
5. I can’t remember _____ I asked that question.
[End of Section]
Review A
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the pronoun in parentheses.
1. Greg and (myself, I) both got our driver’s licenses.
2. When he called, I could hardly believe it was really (he,
him).
3. “Does anyone dance better than (her, she)?” I wondered.
4. What the crowd appreciated most was (him, his) singing.
5. (Who, Whom) can name this geometric shape?
[End of Section]
Review B
If a sentence has an incorrect pronoun, supply the correct
pronoun form. If a sentence is already correct, identify it
with a “C.”
_____ 1. I would like to know who you are voting for in the
next election.
_____ 2. They watched her and I playing a game of tennis.
_____ 3. Sally and myself are planning to attend the lecture.
_____ 4. Is it Mr. Ross whom teaches the class?
_____ 5. No one has worked harder than she.
The End
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