What Is Intelligence, Anyway?

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Unit 9
What Is Intelligence
Anyway?
Intelligence: power of learning, understanding
and reasoning; mental ability
--Even students with average intelligence can
be top students if they study hard.
What words will occur to you when you want to describe this great
scientist?
bright
sensible
clever
talented
smart
gifted
brilliant
wise
The Professor and the Yo-Yo
Unit 9
What Is Intelligence,
Anyway?
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Directions: Listen to the following passage and fill in the blanks.
Name: Isaac Asimov
Writer / Chemist
Occupation _____________
2 January 1920
Date of Birth _____________
Place of Birth former Soviet Union
Date of Death ______
1992
6 April
Cause of Death ________________
HIV infection /AIDS
Best Known as: Prolific多创作的 writer of
and science fiction _____________
popular science
■
Isaac Asimov was born on 2 January 1920 in the former
Soviet Union, but grew up in Brooklyn, New York. He taught
biochemistry at Boston University until he retired in 1958 to
become a full-time writer. Asimov had been publishing short
stories since the late 1930s, and in 1952 published his first
novel. The author of the classic Ⅰ, Robot series and The
Foundation Trilogy, Asimov wrote more than 400 books and
won every major science fiction award. He also wrote popular
books and essays on science and technology, earning him the
nickname "The Great Explainer." Isaac Asimov died of “heart
and kidney failure, which were complications of the HIV
infection” on 6 April 1992. HIV was not revealed as the cause
of his death until 2002, when his widow Janet published the
memoirs It's Been a Good Life.
How does the author start his essay?

Question + Story
→
his point of view
How does the author develop his essay?

Examples of his auto-repair man
Good at Solving
mechanical problems
trap the author with his trick
How does the author end his essay?
one-sentence paragraph → his conclusion
Text analysis-----Text structure
Introduction
Para.1-2
I score high in
aptitude tests
but it only
means I am
good at
answering
academic
questions
Development
Para.3-6
The examples of the
auto repairman
show that
intelligence is
decided by the
society one lives in.
Conclusion
para.7
Intelligence is not
absolute and it is
only one aspect of a
person’s total
qualities
For Paras 1-2
Questions and Answers
1. What did the author think of the high score
he had achieved in the aptitude test?
2. Does the author believe that he is highly
intelligent?
3. According to the author, what do the high
scores really mean?
For Paras. 3-7
1. My auto repairman once got a score of less than
80 on an intelligence test.
( F )
I estimated that my auto repairman could not have a
score of more than 80 if he took an intelligence test.
2. Although I considered myself far more intelligent than
my auto repairman, I had to ask him to fix my car
when anything went wrong with it. ( )
T
3. I would not score high in an intelligent test (
T
designed by a worker.
)
For Paras. 3-7
4. I was good at both physical work and brainwork.( F )
I would do poor when working with my hands.
5. The numerical evaluation of intelligence is
determined by the talented people. ( F )
The numerical evaluation of intelligence is
determined by a small subsection of that
society as an arbiter of such matters.
The joke
The prelude (前
奏) of the joke
A deaf-and-dumb guy
bought nails by making
motions successfully.
The question asked
by the repairman
How could a blind
man buy scissors?
My answer
The repairman’s
response
My feeling
made scissoring motions
with his first two fingers
laughed and said that
I was a moron
Uneasy
His high I.Q
He cannot repair
his car
He was caught by a
joke
What is intelligence, anyway?
Discussion
Do you agree that sometimes highly
educated people are not so smart as
those who receive less education? Why
or why not?
Talking About the Pictures and writing the summary of the text
Assignments:
Useful Expressions
1. 考试得高分
2. 参加测试
3. 大惊小怪
4. 学究式的问题
5. 值得回答
6. 出试题
7. 据我估计
8. 想当然
9. 检查主要部件
10. 神谕
score high on a test
receive a test
make a fuss over / of
an academic question
be worthy of answers
make up a test
by my estimate
take sth. for granted
explore the vitals of sth.
divine oracles
verbal talents
11. 口语能力
foist on us
12. 强加于我们身上
praise highly
13. 高度赞扬
raise one’s head from under a car
14. 从车下面抬起头
make a hammering motion
15. 做捶打动作
pick out
16. 挑出
laugh heartily
17. 开怀大笑
18. 在所有顾客身上试验 try on all customers
for sure
19. 确定
20. 有一定原因或道理 have something there
Unit 9
What Is Intelligence,
Anyway?
Isaac Asimov
His high I.Q
He cannot repair
his car
He was caught by a
joke
What is intelligence, anyway?
Part I
Paras.1-2
I have been scoring high in intelligence
tests all my life but it only means that I
am good at answering certain types of
academic questions.

aptitude: natural ability or skill (L2)

Examples:
--She has an attitude for dealing with people.
--He showed an aptitude for music at an early
age.


fuss




1.unnecessary,useless,or unwelcome
expression of excitement, impatience, etc.
Don't make (such) a fuss.!
2.an anxious, nervous condition
3.an expression of annoyance, esp. for a
good reason





make a great fuss about nothing
小题大做
make a great fuss about trifles
fuss and feathers
大吹大擂; 夸耀, 不必要的忧虑和紧张








get into a fuss
焦急; 忙乱
kick up a fuss
[美俚]起哄, 骚乱; 大吵大闹
make a fuss of sb.
对某人过分关心, 大肆吹捧某人
make a fuss over sb.
对某人过分关心, 大肆吹捧某人





make a fuss over (about/of): (L4)
show unnecessary nervous excitement
(esp. about unimportant things)
Examples:
--This is only a small cut. Don’t make a fuss.
--He asked himself why he had made such a
big fuss about so simple a matter.





. Register
(L6)
(v.) write in a list or record
Examples:
--I have registered for four courses for next
semester.
--学生们必须在四月底完成新课程的注册。

Students have to finish registering for the new
course by the end of April.

(n.) record or list
Example:
--The old man finally found the register of


births and deaths.

academic:
(9)

(1) scholarly, theoretical, not practical
Examples:
--His theory received little attention because he was
unknown in the academic world.
--This question is purely academic.
(2) of a college or university
Examples:

--这一学年,他没有得到任何奖励。





He didn’t receive any prize in this academic year.
academic: 2) of a college or university 学院
的
We have made good
preparations and welcome the
assessment of our university in
academic year 2007 – 2008
bent: n. special natural skill or interest
(L11)
She has a scientific bent.
他生性爱好音乐。
He has a natural bent for music.
Actually, though, don’t such scores simply mean
[ that I am very good at answering the type of academic
questions] ( that are considered worthy of answers by
the people ( who make up the intelligence tests —
people with intellectual bents similar to mine ) ) ?(L8)
 1. the subject : such scores
 2. the predicate : mean
 3.the
object : the clause “that I am very good at
answering the type of academic questions”.
 4.an attributive clause modifying “academic questions”
 5. another attributive clause modifying the word
“people”.
Difficult Sentences
Actually, though, don’t such scores simply mean
[ that I am very good at answering the type of
academic questions] ( that are considered worthy
of answers by the people ( who make up the
intelligence tests — people with intellectual bents
similar to mine ) ) ? (L8)
Translate this sentence:
然而,实际上,难道这类分数不是仅仅意味着我很善于
回答那些编制智力测验的人们 —— 智力爱好跟我类似
的人们 —— 认为值得回答的那类学究式的问题吗?
What function does this sentence
perform in organizing the essay?
 Transitional sentence
What effect does it achieve?
Coherence
intelligent & intellectual



An intelligent person: someone who has the
ability to think, understand, and learn things
quickly and well.
An intellectual person: someone who is
interested in ideas or theories, rather than in
practical matters.
For example:

Some scientists claim that dolphins are more
intelligent than humans.

Einstein knew there were answers beyond
his intellectual reach.
See
page 225 about intelligent and intellectual
Part II
Paras. 3-6
The
examples of the auto repairman
show that intelligence is decided by the
society one lives in.
What does the writer think of the intelligence test?
It can only show one aspect of a person's intelligence.




hasten: move or act with speed (15)
Examples:
--Upon learning the news of her son’s injury,
she hastened to the hospital.
--毫无疑问,落后的医疗加速了他的死亡。
There is no doubt that poor medical treatment
has hastened his death.





foist on: impose (someone or something unwanted)
upon by coercion or trickery (L26)
Examples:
--Stores should not foist defective goods on
customers.
--他是教徒, 但他不想把自己的信仰强加人。
--He's religious but he doesn't try to foist his beliefs
on everyone.
--I’m sorry all this has been foisted on you.






whereupon: upon that; immediately
following that (L37)
Examples:
--I described my disastrous morning,
whereupon, he laughed and laughed.
--The unsuspecting teacher pulled out the
drawer; whereupon, a dozen frogs leaped out.
Note: The word “whereupon” is used in our
text as an adverb, not as a conjunction.

goddamned: strongly cursed or damned(L45)

This expression is used as a strong
expletive (咒
骂语), often shortened to “goddamn”, considered
inappropriate in polite society or on formal occasions.
And students of English are not advised to use it.

--The professor is so goddamned educated that he
is not very smart.
Difficult Sentences
Its numerical evaluation is determined by a small
subsection of that society which has managed
to foist itself on the rest of us as an arbiter of
such matters. (L24)
What can we infer from the sentence?
The author believed that only a small group of
people in society determined what intelligence
was and forced all the others to accept their ideas.
Translate the sentence:
它的数值是由那个社会中的一小部分人决定的,他
们作为这类事情的仲裁人已设法把他们的意志强加
在我们身上。
Part III
Para 7
Intelligence is not absolute and it is
only one aspect of a person’s total
qualities
 uneasy: awkward; not easy in mind or
body



(L46)
Examples:
--He gave an uneasy smile when he
met his mother-in-law for the first time.
--The professor was so uneasy in suit
and tie that he found an excuse to leave
the dinner party early.
Difficult Sentences
And I have an uneasy feeling he had
something there (L46)
Translate this sentence into Chinese:


我有一种不安的感觉:他的话不无道理。
What can we infer from the sentence?
To some extent, the author agrees with the auto
repairman that too much education made him
not very smart.
What is your understanding of intelligence?
Useful Expressions
1. 考试得高分
2. 参加测试
3. 大惊小怪
4. 学究式的问题
5. 值得回答
6. 出试题
7. 据我估计
8. 想当然
9. 检查主要部件
10. 神谕
score high on a test
receive a test
make a fuss over / of
an academic question
be worthy of answers
make up a test
by my estimate
take sth. for granted
explore the vitals of sth.
divine oracles
verbal talents
11. 口语能力
foist on us
12. 强加于我们身上
praise highly
13. 高度赞扬
raise one’s head from under a car
14. 从车下面抬起头
make a hammering motion
15. 做捶打动作
pick out
16. 挑出
laugh heartily
17. 开怀大笑
18. 在所有顾客身上试验 try on all customers
for sure
19. 确定
20. 有一定原因或道理 have something there
Activity:
Make a role play to perform the joke.
What Is Intelligence, Anyway?
Isaac Asimov
What is intelligence, anyway? When I was in the
army I received a kind of aptitude test that all soldiers
took and, against a normal of 100, scored 160. No one
at the base had ever seen a figure like that and for two
hours they made a big fuss over me. (It didn’t mean
anything. The next day I was still a buck private with KP
as my highest duty.)
All my life I’ve been registering scores like that, so that I have the complacent
feeling that I’m highly intelligent, and I expect other people to think so, too. Actually,
though, don’t such scores simply mean that I am very good at answering the type of
academic questions that are considered worthy of answers by the people who make
up the intelligence tests — people with intellectual bents similar to mine?
Sentence
Word
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
For instance, I had an auto repairman once, who,
on these intelligence tests, could not possibly have
scored more than 80, by my estimate. I always took it
for granted that I was far more intelligent than he was.
Yet, when anything went wrong with my car I hastened
to him with it, watched him anxiously as he explored its
vitals, and listened to his pronouncements as though
they were divine oracles — and he always fixed my car.
Well, then, suppose my auto repairman devised questions for an intelligence
test. Or suppose a carpenter did, or a farmer, or, indeed, almost anyone but an
academician. By every one of those tests, I’d prove myself a moron. And I’d be a
moron, too. In a world where I could not use my academic training and my verbal
talents but had to do something intricate or hard, working with my hands, I would do
poorly. My intelligence, then, is not absolute. Its worth is determined by the society I
live in. Its numerical evaluation is determined by a small subsection of that society
which has managed to foist itself on the rest of us as an arbiter of such matters.
Sentence
Word
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
Consider my auto repairman, again.
He had a habit of telling me jokes
whenever he saw me. One time he raised
his head from under the automobile hood
to say: “Doc, a deaf-and-dumb guy went
into a hardware store to ask for some
nails. He put two fingers together on the
counter and made hammering motions
with the other hand. The clerk brought him a hammer. He shook his head and
pointed to the two fingers he was hammering. The clerk brought him nails. He
picked out the sizes he wanted, and left. Well, doc, the next guy who came in was
a blind man. He wanted scissors. How do you suppose he asked for them?”
Sentence
Word
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
I lifted my right hand and made scissoring motions
with my first two fingers. Whereupon my auto
repairman laughed heartily and said, “Why, you
dumb fool, he used his voice and asked for them.”
Then he said, smugly, “I’ve been trying that on all
my customers today.” “Did you catch many?” I
asked. “Quite a few,” he said, “but I knew for sure
I’d catch you.” “Why is that?” I asked.
“Because you’re so goddamned educated, doc, I
knew you couldn’t be very smart.”
And I have an uneasy feeling he had something
there.
Sentence
Word
After Reading
Assignment



Try to master the language points we have
learned.
Read the text again and try to recite
paragraph 7.
Do exercises III and IV on page221-223.
Unit 9
What Is Intelligence,
Anyway?
Isaac Asimov
Talking About the Pictures
score high on a test
make a fuss over / of
be worthy of answers
receive a test
an academic question
make up a test
by my estimate
explore the vitals of sth.
take sth. for granted
divine oracles
make a hammering motion
a deaf –and- dumb guy
pick out
laugh heartily
for sure
try on all customers
have something there
Definition of Intelligence
Intelligence is a term usually referring to a general mental
capacity
to reason, solve problems, think abstractly,
________
_____ from past experience. Intelligence
learn new material, and profit
Likewise
_________
can be measured
by many different kinds of tasks. _______
,
this ability is expressed in many aspects of a person’s life.
draws on
Intelligence ________
a variety of mental processes, including
perception , decision-making and reasoning. Yet
memory, learning,_________
no universally
_________accepted definition of intelligence exists, and people
______
___________
continue to debate
what, exactly, it is. Fundamental
questions
remain: Is intelligence one general ability or several
independent systems of abilities? Is intelligence a
property of the brain, a characteristic of behavior, or a set of
________
knowledge and skills?
■
How does the author start his essay?

Question + Story
→
his point of view
How does the author develop his essay?

Examples of his auto-repair man
Good at Solving
mechanical
problems

trap the author with his trick
How does the author end his essay?
one-sentence paragraph → his conclusion
his high I,Q
( score 160)
introduction
What is intelligence,
anyway?
mean nothing, still a buck
developmen
private
Less
intelligent auto repairman
t
What is intelligence,
fix the car well each
anyway?
developmen
time
Less intelligent auto repairman
t
What is intelligence,
anyway?
He was sure to catch
me by a
conclusion
I joke
have an uneasy feeling
he had something there
His high I.Q
He cannot repair
his car
He was caught by a
joke
What is intelligence, anyway?
1. What kind of person is an intelligent
person?
2. If a person is good at sports or
music, can we say he is an intelligent
person?
3. If one person excels in mathematics ,
another excels in English , who is more
intelligent?
Spot Dictation
psychologists believe that there is more than
Today, many _________
one type of intelligence. American psychologist Howard
proposed the existence of multiple intelligences, each
Gardner ________
_______
linked to a separate system within the brain. He theorized
________
that there are seven types of intelligence: linguistic, logicalspatial , musical, bodily-kinesthetic,
mathematical, _______
interpersonal, an intrapersonal
___________ . American psychologist Robert
______ of intelligence,
Sternberg suggested a different model
components
consisting of three ____________
: analytic (“school smarts,” as
insight ),
measured in academic tests), creative (a capacity for ______
and practical (“street smarts,” or the ability to adapt to, select,
real-world
and shape their _________
environment).
■
胡
壮
麟
李
白
1.linguistic
poet
linguist
华
罗
庚
scientist
2.logical-mathematical
mathematician
郑
成
功
navigator chess expert
3. spatial
贝
多
芬
4.musical
musician/composer
5. bodily-kinesthetic
athlete/ actor
6.interpersonal
statesman/leader/ consultant
7.intrapersonal
religious persons
seven types of intelligence
1.linguistic
linguists / poets
2.logical-mathematical
scientists / mathematicians
3. spatial
navigator/ chess expert
4.musical
musician/ composer
5. bodily-kinesthetic
6.interpersonal
7. intrapersonal
athlete / actor/actress/dancer
statesman/leader/ consultant
religious persons
A sample IQ test
Take the IQ test below to see how
intelligent you are.
Some
people
maintain
that IQ tests are just
for fun. Others argue
that they are indeed
testing
man’s
intelligence. What’s your
opinion?


Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)
The result of an intelligence test is called an IQ.
Generally a person’s IQ is to be obtained by divided
by his or her mental age (determined by a test) by
his or her real age and multiplying the result by 100
(IQ=mental age ÷real age×100).
below 85
retardation(迟钝)
85-100
average intelligence
110-120
bright-average intelligence
120-130
intellectually superior
above 130
intellectually very superior
gifted or genius
Writing Practice — Transition
A brief introduction
 1.Transition is frequently used to indicate the
logical relationship within or between
sentences. Different transitional words and
phrases facilitate the conveyance of ideas in
various ways. Therefore, it is easier for
readers to follow the author’s line of thought.

WAY
SAMPLE SENTENCE
Adding ideas
Jerry prefers coffee to milk. Furthermore, he prefers
black coffee.
Emphasizing
ideas
Max is hardworking, cheerful, and above all
honest.
Illustrating
ideas
We need to take everything into account. We
have to consider, for instance, the cost of each
item.
Comparing
ideas
The first letter she wrote me was less than a page
long, and her second letter was similarly brief.
Contrasting
ideas
Showing
cause and
effect
Summarizin
g ideas
This is a cheap and simple process. However
there are dangers.
Since the prices of the raw materials have been
raised, I'm afraid that we have to adjust the prices
of our products accordingly.
In conclusion, all the three factors contribute to
the final success of the project.
Transitional words & phrases in the text




actually, though (para. 2)
for instance; yet (para. 3)
then; then (para. 4)
again (para. 4)
See page 237-238,do exercise
Assignment

Write a paragraph of 120-150 words
explaining your view of intelligence. You are
required to cite examples to support your
argument.
Writing skills

How does the author put his ideas together?

What is intelligence, anyway + Story
→ his point of view
For instance + example 1
Consider my auto-repair man again+ example 2

One-sentence paragraph
Proverbs and Quotations
1.A wise man hears one word and understands two.
智者听一知二。
2.To much cleverness is folly.
过分聪明反而愚蠢。
3.Wisdom in the mind is better than money in the hand.
脑中智慧胜过手中金钱。
.
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
5.You can tell whether a man is clever by his answers. You
can tell whether a man is wise by his questions.
— Naguib Mahfouz, Egyptian writer
看一个人是否聪明看他的答案;看一个人是否有智慧看他提的题。
—— 埃及作家 纳吉布·马福兹
6.
Every man is a fool sometimes, and none at all times.
— George Kelly, American playwright and actor
任何人都会做蠢事,但没有人永远愚蠢。
—— 美国剧作家、演员 G · 凯利
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