Bell Ringer • What does Ming mean? • Who discovered the Americas? • What is a Samurai? CH 11: Expanding Empires Outside Europe 1453 • Ottoman Turks will attack Constantinople. • Though Constantinople has stopped invaders before their Empire is in decline. • The Turks will use Cannons, something Constantinople was not designed for. • The Turks will win and create the largest empire in history. • Istanbul (New name) The Ottoman Empire • The Ottoman Empire, at its height, will control Southeast Asia, North Africa, and a large part of Europe. • The Ottomans were a Muslim Tribal group that originated from a nomadic group out of Central Asia • “Osman” was a powerful leader who helped unite the tribes, and the Ottomans would take their name in his honor. • The Turks would capture Constantinople under the rule of Memhet II, also known as Memhet the Conqueror. • Under future rulers the Turks would gain Greece, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Hungary, etc • Controlled agricultural land, trade cities, a strong government, and the Holy cities of all three Monotheistic Religions. Empire Structure • Sultan: Absolute Ruler of Ottoman Empire – Sultan would pass rule to a male in the family, not always a son. New Sultans would often kill or imprison relatives to remove the competition • Grand Viser: Chief Minister of the Government • Divan: Council of Ministers and Military Leaders • Provincial Governors • Bureaucracy & Meritocracy • Many government officials were captives from the Ottoman Empire. • The Ottoman Empire required devshirme: a tax calling for an allotment of Children. • Many of the boys would be trained as Janissaries, or slave soldiers • Janissaries were considered some of the finest fighters in the world. Diverse Society • Because of the size of the Empire the Ottomans had a diverse society. • They were tolerant of the many peoples and religions. • Different religious groups were organized into separate communities with the right to run their own areas. • Shi’a Muslims were less tolerated as they were viewed as a threat to control. • Suleyman, a sultan, would create a strict legal code based off of Islamic Law. • Suleyman’s Law code provided a uniform legal system for all peoples. Decline • Suleyman dies in 1566, and the Ottoman Empire begins to decline. • The Ottomans experienced two major defeats to combined European forces • The Policy of imprisoning family backfired. Sometimes these people did become Sultans. However they didn’t get educated properly while jailed, and mismanaged the empire. • Europe developed new trade routes that bypassed the Ottoman Empire, so they lost money • New Silver from the Americas decreased the importance of Ottoman Silver • The Empire would last until 1923, after World War I. Mughal India (Empire) • Also Muslim Turks who originated from Central Asia (same as Ottomans) • The founder of the Mughal Empire was named Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan. • Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol • Babur would conquer Northern India defeating an army of 100,000 men with just 12,000 of his own. • Babur’s advantage was he had cannons and muskets. • Babur’s son would lose most of the empire. • When he died, his Son Akbar would take over and revive the Empire Golden Age • Akbar would take control of the Empire when he was 14. • He would rule for over 40 years. • His success was partly due to him dividing India into provinces. • He reformed the tax system, and promoted tolerance of all peoples • He was viewed an Indian, not a foreign invader. • Could be especially cruel when needed. He destroyed the town of a governor who opposed him. • Akbar would encourage the arts throughout his rule, and would die in 1605 and be followed by numerous success • One successor, Shah Jahan will be best known for Building the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife. • Another ruler, Aurangzeh, would end tolerance of Hindus, and carry out a bloody military campaign to capture southern India. Taj Mahal Trade and Interactions • Mughals relied on the diversity of India for economic success. • Because of their location India was important in trade with China and the Spice Islands. • The Mughals would use these trade routes to help spread Islam • Increased trade would bring a greater European influence Mughal Decline • As European influence grew, the Mughal power declined. • Mughal persecution of Hindus also lead to the unpopularity of the Empire among the people • In the 1700s, The British seeing an opportunity took control of large portions of India, and would maintain control until after World War II Group Work • Spend some time reading over your assigned section. • Write down on a sheet of paper the information you think is important for you to know, something you don’t know, or a fact that is just really interesting • The Teacher (Me) will tell you when to get into your groups. • One (1) writer will help the groups organize their list of the most important info for their section Ming & Qing Dynasties • In the mid 1300s the Mongols are still in charge of China. • Popular opposition will lead to their overthrow, and the Ming Dynasty will take over. • The translation of the word Ming is “Brilliant” Old & New • The Ming will revive the civil service system • The Emperor will also enact a tax and land reform. This will cause an increase in trade throughout their Empire • However, the Emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang, will be a despot. He will execute those who oppose him, and suspects everyone of wrong doing. • In 1403 his son, Yong Le would take control of the empire. • He will rebuild the Great Wall, and move the capital to Beijing. • He will be responsible for the construction of the Forbidden City. Seafaring China • Yong Le will also support China’s navy. • He will sponsor the voyages of Admiral Zheng He, who will explore extensively between 1405 & 1433. • These voyages will help to open China to the trading world, and they will adopt the nickname of the Middle Kingdom • In the 1430s sea travel will end due to its expense. Qing Dynasty • The Ming Rule for about 300 years. • They will grow weak due to corruption and rebellion. • The Qing dynasty will take over which will be seen as a passing of the mandate of heaven • Qing means pure • The Qing are ethnically Manchus • Though Manchus are seen as foreigners they have long been influenced by the Chinese and are really very similar • The Qing will balance harsh rule with that of acceptance. The nature of their rule will eventually win the respect of the Chinese. • Excellent Emperors will also help the their Dynasty. • Both rulers will be competent and well respected. They expand the empire and this again makes the Chinese like the Qing Decline of the Qing • Like other Chinese rulers the Qing would officially not recognize trade as important. • They would restrict trade to the city of Canton (Guangzhou). • Despite looking down on trade, they will trade for silver from the Americas. • This trade allows the Chinese population to boom to 1/3 of the earths’ population • The growth was unsustainable. • The Qing would become victim of food shortages and famine, and rebellions would break out. • Ignoring technology left the Qing vulnerable to the more scientifically advanced European nations. • The Qing dynasty will last until 1911, but because of their inability to adapt and change they will become increasingly victim to European influences. Tokugawa Japan • In the 1600s the Tokugawa family would unify Japan. • Before Tokugawa rule, Japan had a feudal society: – Emperor: Top of the structure – Shogun: Military leaders who ruled on behalf of the emperor – Daimyo: Local lords who controlled large estates • In the late 1400s there would be a Civil War in Japan. • Shoguns would lose control, Dynamos would fight with Samurai armies • Known as Age of the Warring States • Eventually, 2 powerful daimyos would start to put down their opponents. • The Tokugawa would end the wars and set up a government that lasts for 250 years. Tokugawa Rule • To create stability the Tokugawa would have a strong central government. • To prevent Daimyo from getting to powerful the Tokugawa would: – Create a secret police – Ban the use of firearms – Build new castles – Hold family members as hostages – Charge heavy taxes Tokugawa Social System • Four Social Classes: – – – – Warrior Class: Samurai (5%) Farmers: Considered the most productive members of society Artisans Merchants • Rules for behavior and dress were created and followed by each class • Social mobility was extremely rare Chinese Influence • Japanese social system reflects Confucian values • Japanese writing system was borrowed and evolved from the Chinese system • Adopted Buddhism • Kabuki (performance) and Haiku (17 syllable poems) were both developed during the Tokugawa Era A Policy of Isolation • Shortly before the Tokugawa took control Europeans had arrived in Europe. • Originally the Tokugawa were open to European influence • However, when many Japanese began to convert to Catholicism the rulers became xenophobic (fear of Foreign things) • The Tokugawa would expel the Christians Missionaries • The xenophobia would continue, and most Europeans will be banned from Japan by 1638. • The Dutch were allowed to visit once or twice a year. • Eventually the Tokugawa would close off all ports to foreign trade, and would remain isolated for about 200 years. This would be detrimental to science and technology. • In the 1800s American warships forced Japan to reopen to foreign trade. • Shortly thereafter the Tokugawa rule came to an end. Rise of Russia • At one point and time the Mongols controlled Russia (yet another reason why people didn’t travel through Russia to China) • The Mongols allowed Russian Princes to control their own cities in exchange for a tribute • This allowed Ivan III, Ivan the Great, to take control in 1462 • Ivan, seeing the Mongols were in decline, began to conquer lands and based his power in Moscow. • Ivan began to call himself the Csar (Tsar) or the Russian Version of Caesar. • Ivan saw Russia as the Third Great Roman Empire Ivan IV (The Terrible) • Ivan III grandson, Ivan IV took three steps to strengthen Russia – He conquered Mongol land to the South and East – Instituted a unified legal code to make Russia more efficient – He fought feudalism and took power away from the Russian Nobility • Still, Ivan was seen as a cruel tyrant who was constantly worried someone would steal his power. Time of Troubles • After Ivan IV death his son took control. However he was a weak ruler, and Russia would enter a 15 year Civil War known as the Time of Troubles • In 1613 Michael Romanov would become Tsar and begin to mend Russia’s divisions • Under the Romanov’s Russia would continue to expand reaching the Pacific Ocean Peter the Great • Many Romanovs continued to modernize Russia. • Peter I, the Great, longed to be like the rest of Europe and visited factories, hospitals, museums, and shipyards to get ideas. • He built a new capital (St Petersburg), set up schools, established an academy of sciences, and even commanded all upper Russian government members to dress more “Westerly” Catherine the Great • Catherine II would continue the Enlightenment of Russia by supporting the arts and sciences. • Both Catherine and Peter hoped to advance Russia, but crushed anyone who opposed them. • They are sometimes called Enlightened Despots End of the Monarchy • Much of the Russian Population were serfs, or peasant farmers bound to their land. • Despite the change in Russia nothing ever benefited them. • Lead by Lenin and Marx there would be a peasant rebellion in 1917. • The Romanov Family would be executed, and the Russian Monarchy would end.