CH 11: Expanding Empires Outside Europe

Bell Ringer
• What does Ming mean?
• Who discovered the Americas?
• What is a Samurai?
CH 11: Expanding Empires
Outside Europe
• Ottoman Turks will attack
• Though Constantinople
has stopped invaders
before their Empire is in
• The Turks will use
Cannons, something
Constantinople was not
designed for.
• The Turks will win and
create the largest empire
in history.
• Istanbul (New name)
The Ottoman Empire
• The Ottoman Empire, at its height, will control
Southeast Asia, North Africa, and a large part
of Europe.
• The Ottomans were a Muslim Tribal group
that originated from a nomadic group out of
Central Asia
• “Osman” was a powerful leader who helped
unite the tribes, and the Ottomans would take
their name in his honor.
• The Turks would capture
Constantinople under the
rule of Memhet II, also
known as Memhet the
• Under future rulers the Turks
would gain Greece, Palestine,
Syria, Egypt, Hungary, etc
• Controlled agricultural land,
trade cities, a strong
government, and the Holy
cities of all three
Monotheistic Religions.
Empire Structure
• Sultan: Absolute Ruler of Ottoman Empire
– Sultan would pass rule to a male in the family, not
always a son. New Sultans would often kill or
imprison relatives to remove the competition
• Grand Viser: Chief Minister of the Government
• Divan: Council of Ministers and Military
• Provincial Governors
• Bureaucracy & Meritocracy
• Many government officials
were captives from the
Ottoman Empire.
• The Ottoman Empire
required devshirme: a tax
calling for an allotment of
• Many of the boys would
be trained as Janissaries,
or slave soldiers
• Janissaries were
considered some of the
finest fighters in the world.
Diverse Society
• Because of the size of the Empire the
Ottomans had a diverse society.
• They were tolerant of the many peoples and
• Different religious groups were organized into
separate communities with the right to run
their own areas.
• Shi’a Muslims were less
tolerated as they were
viewed as a threat to
• Suleyman, a sultan,
would create a strict
legal code based off of
Islamic Law.
• Suleyman’s Law code
provided a uniform legal
system for all peoples.
• Suleyman dies in 1566, and the Ottoman
Empire begins to decline.
• The Ottomans experienced two major defeats
to combined European forces
• The Policy of imprisoning family backfired.
Sometimes these people did become Sultans.
However they didn’t get educated properly
while jailed, and mismanaged the empire.
• Europe developed
new trade routes that
bypassed the Ottoman
Empire, so they lost
• New Silver from the
Americas decreased
the importance of
Ottoman Silver
• The Empire would last
until 1923, after World
War I.
Mughal India (Empire)
• Also Muslim Turks who
originated from Central
Asia (same as
• The founder of the
Mughal Empire was
named Babur, a
descendant of Genghis
• Mughal is the Persian
word for Mongol
• Babur would conquer
Northern India defeating
an army of 100,000 men
with just 12,000 of his
• Babur’s advantage was
he had cannons and
• Babur’s son would lose
most of the empire.
• When he died, his Son
Akbar would take over
and revive the Empire
Golden Age
• Akbar would take control of the Empire when
he was 14.
• He would rule for over 40 years.
• His success was partly due to him dividing
India into provinces.
• He reformed the tax system, and promoted
tolerance of all peoples
• He was viewed an Indian, not a foreign
• Could be especially cruel when needed. He
destroyed the town of a governor who
opposed him.
• Akbar would encourage the arts throughout
his rule, and would die in 1605 and be
followed by numerous success
• One successor, Shah Jahan will be best known
for Building the Taj Mahal in memory of his
• Another ruler, Aurangzeh, would end
tolerance of Hindus, and carry out a bloody
military campaign to capture southern India.
Taj Mahal
Trade and Interactions
• Mughals relied on the
diversity of India for
economic success.
• Because of their location
India was important in trade
with China and the Spice
• The Mughals would use
these trade routes to help
spread Islam
• Increased trade would bring
a greater European influence
Mughal Decline
• As European influence grew, the Mughal power
• Mughal persecution of Hindus also lead to the
unpopularity of the Empire among the people
• In the 1700s, The British seeing an opportunity
took control of large portions of India, and would
maintain control until after World War II
Group Work
• Spend some time reading over your assigned
• Write down on a sheet of paper the
information you think is important for you to
know, something you don’t know, or a fact
that is just really interesting
• The Teacher (Me) will tell you when to get into
your groups.
• One (1) writer will help the groups organize
their list of the most important info for their
Ming & Qing Dynasties
• In the mid 1300s the
Mongols are still in charge
of China.
• Popular opposition will
lead to their overthrow,
and the Ming Dynasty will
take over.
• The translation of the word
Ming is “Brilliant”
Old & New
• The Ming will revive the civil
service system
• The Emperor will also enact a tax
and land reform. This will cause
an increase in trade throughout
their Empire
• However, the Emperor, Zhu
Yuanzhang, will be a despot. He
will execute those who oppose
him, and suspects everyone of
wrong doing.
• In 1403 his son, Yong Le would take control of the
• He will rebuild the Great Wall, and move the
capital to Beijing.
• He will be responsible for the construction of the
Forbidden City.
Seafaring China
• Yong Le will also support China’s
• He will sponsor the voyages of
Admiral Zheng He, who will
explore extensively between 1405
& 1433.
• These voyages will help to open
China to the trading world, and
they will adopt the nickname of
the Middle Kingdom
• In the 1430s sea travel will end
due to its expense.
Qing Dynasty
• The Ming Rule for about 300 years.
• They will grow weak due to corruption and
• The Qing dynasty will take over which will be
seen as a passing of the mandate of heaven
• Qing means pure
• The Qing are ethnically Manchus
• Though Manchus are seen as
foreigners they have long been
influenced by the Chinese and are
really very similar
• The Qing will balance harsh rule
with that of acceptance. The
nature of their rule will eventually
win the respect of the Chinese.
• Excellent Emperors will also help
the their Dynasty.
• Both rulers will be competent and
well respected. They expand the
empire and this again makes the
Chinese like the Qing
Decline of the Qing
• Like other Chinese rulers the Qing would officially not recognize
trade as important.
• They would restrict trade to the city of Canton (Guangzhou).
• Despite looking down on trade, they will trade for silver from
the Americas.
• This trade allows the Chinese population to boom to 1/3 of the
earths’ population
• The growth was unsustainable.
• The Qing would become victim of food
shortages and famine, and rebellions would
break out.
• Ignoring technology left the Qing vulnerable
to the more scientifically advanced European
• The Qing dynasty will last until 1911, but
because of their inability to adapt and change
they will become increasingly victim to
European influences.
Tokugawa Japan
• In the 1600s the Tokugawa
family would unify Japan.
• Before Tokugawa rule, Japan
had a feudal society:
– Emperor: Top of the structure
– Shogun: Military leaders who
ruled on behalf of the emperor
– Daimyo: Local lords who
controlled large estates
• In the late 1400s there would be a Civil War in Japan.
• Shoguns would lose control, Dynamos would fight
with Samurai armies
• Known as Age of the Warring States
• Eventually, 2 powerful daimyos would start to put
down their opponents.
• The Tokugawa would end the wars and set up a
government that lasts for 250 years.
Tokugawa Rule
• To create stability the Tokugawa would have a
strong central government.
• To prevent Daimyo from getting to powerful
the Tokugawa would:
– Create a secret police
– Ban the use of firearms
– Build new castles
– Hold family members as hostages
– Charge heavy taxes
Tokugawa Social System
• Four Social Classes:
Warrior Class: Samurai (5%)
Farmers: Considered the most productive members of society
• Rules for behavior and dress were created and followed by each class
• Social mobility was extremely rare
Chinese Influence
• Japanese social system reflects Confucian values
• Japanese writing system was borrowed and
evolved from the Chinese system
• Adopted Buddhism
• Kabuki (performance) and Haiku (17 syllable
poems) were both developed during the
Tokugawa Era
A Policy of Isolation
• Shortly before the Tokugawa
took control Europeans had
arrived in Europe.
• Originally the Tokugawa were
open to European influence
• However, when many
Japanese began to convert to
Catholicism the rulers
became xenophobic (fear of
Foreign things)
• The Tokugawa would expel
the Christians Missionaries
• The xenophobia would
continue, and most
Europeans will be banned
from Japan by 1638.
• The Dutch were allowed to
visit once or twice a year.
• Eventually the Tokugawa
would close off all ports to
foreign trade, and would
remain isolated for about
200 years. This would be
detrimental to science and
• In the 1800s American warships forced Japan to
reopen to foreign trade.
• Shortly thereafter the Tokugawa rule came to an
Rise of Russia
• At one point and time the
Mongols controlled Russia (yet
another reason why people
didn’t travel through Russia to
• The Mongols allowed Russian
Princes to control their own
cities in exchange for a tribute
• This allowed Ivan III, Ivan the
Great, to take control in 1462
• Ivan, seeing the Mongols were in decline, began to
conquer lands and based his power in Moscow.
• Ivan began to call himself the Csar (Tsar) or the
Russian Version of Caesar.
• Ivan saw Russia as the Third Great Roman Empire
Ivan IV (The Terrible)
• Ivan III grandson, Ivan IV took
three steps to strengthen Russia
– He conquered Mongol land to the
South and East
– Instituted a unified legal code to
make Russia more efficient
– He fought feudalism and took
power away from the Russian
• Still, Ivan was seen as a cruel
tyrant who was constantly
worried someone would steal his
Time of Troubles
• After Ivan IV death his son
took control. However he was
a weak ruler, and Russia would
enter a 15 year Civil War
known as the Time of Troubles
• In 1613 Michael Romanov
would become Tsar and begin
to mend Russia’s divisions
• Under the Romanov’s Russia
would continue to expand
reaching the Pacific Ocean
Peter the Great
• Many Romanovs continued to
modernize Russia.
• Peter I, the Great, longed to be
like the rest of Europe and visited
factories, hospitals, museums, and
shipyards to get ideas.
• He built a new capital (St
Petersburg), set up schools,
established an academy of
sciences, and even commanded
all upper Russian government
members to dress more
Catherine the Great
• Catherine II would continue
the Enlightenment of Russia by
supporting the arts and
• Both Catherine and Peter
hoped to advance Russia, but
crushed anyone who opposed
• They are sometimes called
Enlightened Despots
End of the Monarchy
• Much of the Russian
Population were serfs, or
peasant farmers bound to
their land.
• Despite the change in Russia
nothing ever benefited them.
• Lead by Lenin and Marx there
would be a peasant rebellion
in 1917.
• The Romanov Family would be
executed, and the Russian
Monarchy would end.