Suffixal Homophones

Dr. Azad H. Fatah
 As
adjectives, participles, the –ed participle
can modify nouns or pronouns.
It can sometimes stand alone, with the
modified noun or pronoun implied.
As verbals, participles can take an object.
As verbals, participles can have tense (i.e.,
refer to past, present, or future) and voice
(i.e., indicate that an agent is "actively"
doing something or "passively" receiving
some action).
 The
–ed has two homophonous shapes:
 1. The –ed participle is inflectional, and
verbal, as in:
 He was frightened by an approaching
 You should read the printed statement.
 2. –ed adjectival is derivational because
it can change the part of speech of the
stem to which it is added. Additionally, it
cannot close off the word. One can add
another derivational suffix, as in
unexpectedly, repeatedly, etc.
 This is a complicated question.
 Verbal
–ed which is inflectional and
participial is mostly followed by (by agent),
consider the following example,
 The only car repaired by that mechanic is
 If there is a whiz deletion (reduced relative
clause), the –ed participle will be verbal, as
 Any coin found on this site must be handed
to the police.
 The antecedent coin is post-modified by the
relative clause (that may be found)
 The
verbal –ed cannot be preceded by a
qualifier or intensifier, such as very, too, so,
rather, etc.
 For example, The invited guests all came.
Here, we cannot put a qualifier such as very
before the verb invited. Thus, the – ed is
inflectional verbal and not adjectival.
The -ed participial, verbal and inflectional can
be found in non- finite -ed clauses, as in
-Covered with confusion, they apologized
 If
the –ed is adjectival, it can mostly
follow the verb to be and linking verbs
(which are seem, become, look, remain,
feel, taste, etc.).
 Consider the following example,
The tourist seems quite frightened.
 The
adjectival –ed can be preceded by
more and most, as in
more complicated issue
 The most confused student
 Exercise
 identify the type of the –ed, give sound
reasons for your answers:
 1. I was really worried about my brother.
 2. After a while, I got bored and left.
 3. They were bitterly disappointed at the
result of the game.
 4.
I was disappointed by the quality of
the printing.
 5. She had the car cleaned.
 6. People are confused about all the
different labels on food these days.
 7. He bought a stolen picture.
 8. You are coming? I am so pleased.
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