PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES • A verb form that is used as an ADJECTIVE. – PAST or PRESENT – End in –ing, -d, -ed, –en, -t PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES • Participles can be found at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentences, but they MUST BE relatively close to the noun or pronoun they modify. • Participles are ONE WORD. • Participial phrases consist of that ONE WORD plus modifiers (all the words that refer to that participle). PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES STEPS to finding the participle or participial phrase 1. Find the subject. 2. Find the real verb. 3. Look for other words that look like verbs (word endings are the clue). EXAMPLE #1 The pouring rain drove us inside for the party. – “Pouring” is the participle – It describes rain. • Avoid getting the participle confused with the REAL verb – in this case “drove.” EXAMPLE #2 Known for her patience, Mrs. Williams was his favorite teacher. – “known” is the participle – “for her patience” is the modifier – This phrase describes Mrs. Williams. • Subject and REAL verb: Mrs. Williams was EXAMPLE #3 The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a shark. “diving” is the participle “near a reef ” is the modifier This phrase describes the biologist. Subject and real verb: biologist saw PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES Twirling their canes, the dancers tapped across the stage. PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES She heard me sighing loudly. Participial phrases may have modifiers such as adverbs. PARTICIPLES & PARTICIPIAL PHRASES A peeled and sliced cucumber can be added to a garden salad. PRACTICE… • The bike had a broken spoke. • Her smiling face made everyone happy. • The frightened child was crying loudly. • The people were frightened by the growling dog. • The squeaking wheel needs some grease. PRACTICE… • The man running slowly still finished the race. • The boy having been scolded finally did his work. • The teacher, having retired, could now travel widely. • The soldier, having saluted his superior, continued on his way. • The truck swerving and sliding hit the brick wall.