Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training Cambodia: Labor Migration Management Labor Migration Management in the GMS Learning Program Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background Population 13,958,000, women account for 51.4% (census in 2010) Real GDP growth rate 6.9% (2011) More than 80% are doing in agriculture sector Working age population 8,853,000 (2010) Labor force 7,702,000 (2010) Young labor force in the ASEAN community 20.000 to 30.000 join labor market annually 80.000 to 90.000 drop out of school Cambodia Economy Cambodia GDP Share and Growth Rate, 1998-2013p 13.3% 11.9% 100% 80% 10.3% 35.4% 8.8% 14% 12% 10% 8.5% 8.1% 38.4% 6.6% 60% 10.8% 10.2% Services Industry Agriculture GDP Growth Rate Growth Rate GDP Share 120% 6.7% 5.9%6.0% 6.5% 7.0% 6% 5.0% 18.0% 22.6% 40% 20% 0% 8% 4% 40.9% 31.5% 2% 0.1% 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 0% 3 Population and Labor Market Population Share by Age Group in 1998 and 2008 (%) 3.5 4.0 31.4 3.0 5.0 34.7 65+ 55-64 18.3 22.3 25-54 15-24 42.8 1998 33.7 0-14 2008 4 Cambodia Labor Migrant Facts While Cambodia now is a lovely and peaceful nation, cause of emigration is mostly hunting for better job opportunity ASEAN countries are experienced the emigrate. They tend emigrate to other higher income economy which provide better payment, hygiene, and hi-tech oriented or knowledge based production Emigration for a job in neighbor countries is keep circulating among to the public especially the rural poor labor who do selfemploy in agriculture with family The first official legal framework governing the migrant labor was put into force on July 20, 1995, namely Sub-decree 57 To cope with the recipient country’s requirement, Cambodia offer 2 sending mechanisms-private recruitment agency and public agency. Cambodia Labor Migrant Facts (Cont.) Estimate the remittances around $ 500 Million, if better promoted Under the private recruitment system, MLVT grant recruitment license to 35 companies and NGOs. Manpower Training and Overseas Sending Board (MTOSB) is assigned to handle the public recruitment service mainly between government and government. Destination countries for Cambodian migrant workers: Malaysia: . 1998-2011 (05): 31,569 as domestic worker + 10,797 (female 5,098) as labor in various factories Thailand (agriculture, fishing, and construction): . Aproximately 200,000 regular and irregular migrant workers (around 120,000 grand work permit by Thai Government and about 70,000 provided a certificate of Identity by RGC Japan: 2007-2009: 166 (female 65) labors South-Korea (agriculture, industry, fishing, and construction): . 2003-2006: 3,399 (female 469) labors . 2007-2012: 18,741 (female 2,803) labors Qatar, Kuwait, gulf countries, Singapore are in process of sending Ministries-Institutions: involvement and Roles Inter-Ministerial Taskforce for Migration (Co-chaired by Minister of Women’s Affairs and Minister of MoLVT)_tri-parties including NGOs Inter-Ministerial Working Group for Implementation of MOU with Thailand MoLVT: Manpower, Training and Overseas Sending Board, General Directorate of Labor, and Department of Employment and Manpower Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Relation: embassies Ministry of Interior: Department for Issuance Passport, Department of Anti-Human Trafficking, and National Committee on the Suppression on Human Trafficking, smuggling, and sexual exploitation and children The Office of the Council of Ministers: National for Committee for Population and Development Existing Legal Frameworks Constitution (article 36 & 40) Law on Anti-Human Trafficking Sub-Decree: . No. 190 (2011) on the Management of Sending Cambodian Workers abroad by Private Recruitment Agency .No. 162 (2009) on the Establishment of the National Committee on the Suppression on Human Trafficking, smuggling, and sexual exploitation and children . No. 195 (2008) on Passport issuance to Cambodian Workers to Work Legally Abroad . No. 70 (2006) on the Creation of the Manpower, Training and Overseas Sending Board (MTSOB) Prakas No. 108 (2006) on Education of HIV/AIDS, Safe Migration, and Labor Right for Cambodian Workers Abroad Existing Legal Frameworks (Cont.) Prakas No. 074 (2008) on the Establishment of Working Group to Manage Migrant Workers Cross Border CambodianThai Daily and Seasonally Decision No. 02 (2005) on the Establishment of InterMinisterial Working Group to Identify Cambodian Workers Who are Working Illegally in Thailand Labor Migrant Worker Policy Association of Cambodian Recruitment Agencies (ACRA) In the process of the development of Prakas on: . The of Use of Terminology in Sub-Decree . The Recognition of Private Recruitment Agency . The Recruitment Procedure and Pre-Departure Orientation . The Implementation of Placement Service Contract Existing Legal Frameworks (Cont.) Pre-Departure Orientation Manual (IOM) Develop Curriculum on Pre-Departure Orientation Others: . MOU between Cambodia-Thailand . MOU between Cambodia-South-Korea . MOU between Cambodia-Qatar . MOU between Cambodia-Kuwait . MOU between Cambodia-Malaysia (drafting) . Agreement between Cambodia-Japan . Agreement or MOU between Cambodia-Singapore Operational System and Procedure: Recruitment and Registration, Exit and Entry Recruitment and registration: in the process to develop Prakas on clarify and accurately dissemination about job opportunity abroad (working condition…) Entry: all foreign workers have to register at Department of Employment and Manpower of MOLV Exit: MOLV in collaboration with Ministry of Interior (Passport) and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Affairs (manage and working Visa) Return/repatriate and reintegration: Sub-Decree No. 190 on the Management of Sending Cambodian Workers abroad by Private Recruitment Agency(article: 26)_in the process to develop Prakas on the Procedure of Return, repatriate, and reintegration Information or Data Management Labor Migration Information System (private recruitment agencies) Manpower Training and Overseas Sending Board (MTSOB): E.g: sending Cambodian workers to South-Korean Good Practices and Challenges Good Practices: . Strong commitment from RGC . Legal frameworks: constitution, Prakas, Decision, and MOU …etc . Good collaboration with relevant ministries –institutions, Recipient countries, and development partners (ILO and IOM…etc) . Collaborate with destination countries to facilitate irregular migrant workers to become regular (Thailand) Challenges: . MoLVT got few year experiences . High cost of sending migrant Cambodian workers . Formulate sound management, policy and strengthen its legal framework and institution . Capacity development and limited human resource and legal frameworks Conclusion • • • • • • Emigration is an opportunity if well manage Tri-parties (government, trade union, and recruitment agency) Education and adequate skill could help domestic workers from enjoying the high paid and hygiene job category Job opportunity abroad can be much maximized if proper skill can be equipped to labor Spotting higher job opportunity in higher development countries like Australia, EU, or OECD A pre-departure orientation about the risk and challenges that are likely to emerge while abroad and re-integration program should be adjusted and strengthening Thank you very much!!!