Labor Migration Management in Cambodia - Intranet

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Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training
Cambodia: Labor Migration
Management
Labor Migration Management in the GMS Learning Program
Mekong Institute, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Background
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Population 13,958,000, women account for
51.4% (census in 2010)
Real GDP growth rate 6.9% (2011)
More than 80% are doing in agriculture sector
Working age population 8,853,000 (2010)
Labor force 7,702,000 (2010)
Young labor force in the ASEAN community
20.000 to 30.000 join labor market annually
80.000 to 90.000 drop out of school
Cambodia Economy
Cambodia GDP Share and Growth Rate, 1998-2013p
13.3%
11.9%
100%
80%
10.3%
35.4%
8.8%
14%
12%
10%
8.5%
8.1%
38.4%
6.6%
60%
10.8%
10.2%
Services
Industry
Agriculture
GDP Growth Rate
Growth Rate
GDP Share
120%
6.7%
5.9%6.0%
6.5%
7.0%
6%
5.0% 18.0%
22.6%
40%
20%
0%
8%
4%
40.9%
31.5%
2%
0.1%
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
0%
3
Population and Labor Market
Population Share by Age Group in 1998 and 2008 (%)
3.5
4.0
31.4
3.0
5.0
34.7
65+
55-64
18.3
22.3
25-54
15-24
42.8
1998
33.7
0-14
2008
4
Cambodia Labor Migrant Facts
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While Cambodia now is a lovely and peaceful nation, cause of
emigration is mostly hunting for better job opportunity
ASEAN countries are experienced the emigrate. They tend emigrate
to other higher income economy which provide better payment,
hygiene, and hi-tech oriented or knowledge based production
Emigration for a job in neighbor countries is keep circulating
among to the public especially the rural poor labor who do selfemploy in agriculture with family
The first official legal framework governing the migrant labor was
put into force on July 20, 1995, namely Sub-decree 57
To cope with the recipient country’s requirement, Cambodia offer 2
sending mechanisms-private recruitment agency and public
agency.
Cambodia Labor Migrant Facts (Cont.)
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Estimate the remittances around $ 500 Million, if better promoted
Under the private recruitment system, MLVT grant recruitment license to 35
companies and NGOs.
Manpower Training and Overseas Sending Board (MTOSB) is assigned to
handle the public recruitment service mainly between government and
government.
Destination countries for Cambodian migrant workers:
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Malaysia:
. 1998-2011 (05): 31,569 as domestic worker + 10,797 (female 5,098) as
labor in various factories
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Thailand (agriculture, fishing, and construction):
. Aproximately 200,000 regular and irregular migrant workers (around
120,000 grand work permit by Thai Government and about 70,000
provided a certificate of Identity by RGC
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Japan: 2007-2009: 166 (female 65) labors
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South-Korea (agriculture, industry, fishing, and construction):
. 2003-2006: 3,399 (female 469) labors
. 2007-2012: 18,741 (female 2,803) labors
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Qatar, Kuwait, gulf countries, Singapore are in process of sending
Ministries-Institutions: involvement
and Roles
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Inter-Ministerial Taskforce for Migration (Co-chaired by Minister of
Women’s Affairs and Minister of MoLVT)_tri-parties including NGOs
Inter-Ministerial Working Group for Implementation of MOU with
Thailand
MoLVT: Manpower, Training and Overseas Sending Board, General
Directorate of Labor, and Department of Employment and Manpower
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Relation: embassies
Ministry of Interior: Department for Issuance Passport, Department
of Anti-Human Trafficking, and National Committee on the
Suppression on Human Trafficking, smuggling, and sexual
exploitation and children
The Office of the Council of Ministers: National for Committee for
Population and Development
Existing Legal Frameworks
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Constitution (article 36 & 40)
Law on Anti-Human Trafficking
Sub-Decree:
. No. 190 (2011) on the Management of Sending Cambodian
Workers abroad by Private Recruitment Agency
.No. 162 (2009) on the Establishment of the National Committee
on the Suppression on Human Trafficking, smuggling, and sexual
exploitation and children
. No. 195 (2008) on Passport issuance to Cambodian Workers to
Work Legally Abroad
. No. 70 (2006) on the Creation of the Manpower, Training and
Overseas Sending Board (MTSOB)
Prakas No. 108 (2006) on Education of HIV/AIDS, Safe Migration,
and Labor Right for Cambodian Workers Abroad
Existing Legal Frameworks (Cont.)
Prakas No. 074 (2008) on the Establishment of Working
Group to Manage Migrant Workers Cross Border CambodianThai Daily and Seasonally
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Decision No. 02 (2005) on the Establishment of InterMinisterial Working Group to Identify Cambodian Workers
Who are Working Illegally in Thailand
 Labor Migrant Worker Policy
 Association of Cambodian Recruitment Agencies (ACRA)
In the process of the development of Prakas on:
. The of Use of Terminology in Sub-Decree
. The Recognition of Private Recruitment Agency
. The Recruitment Procedure and Pre-Departure Orientation
. The Implementation of Placement Service Contract
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Existing Legal Frameworks (Cont.)
Pre-Departure Orientation Manual (IOM)
 Develop Curriculum on Pre-Departure Orientation
Others:
. MOU between Cambodia-Thailand
. MOU between Cambodia-South-Korea
. MOU between Cambodia-Qatar
. MOU between Cambodia-Kuwait
. MOU between Cambodia-Malaysia (drafting)
. Agreement between Cambodia-Japan
. Agreement or MOU between Cambodia-Singapore
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Operational System and Procedure: Recruitment
and Registration, Exit and Entry
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Recruitment and registration: in the process to develop
Prakas on clarify and accurately dissemination about job
opportunity abroad (working condition…)
Entry: all foreign workers have to register at Department of
Employment and Manpower of MOLV
Exit: MOLV in collaboration with Ministry of Interior (Passport)
and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Affairs
(manage and working Visa)
Return/repatriate and reintegration: Sub-Decree No. 190 on
the Management of Sending Cambodian Workers abroad by
Private Recruitment Agency(article: 26)_in the process to
develop Prakas on the Procedure of Return, repatriate, and
reintegration
Information or Data Management
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Labor Migration Information System
(private recruitment agencies)
Manpower Training and Overseas Sending
Board (MTSOB): E.g: sending Cambodian
workers to South-Korean
Good Practices and Challenges
Good Practices:
. Strong commitment from RGC
. Legal frameworks: constitution, Prakas, Decision, and MOU …etc
. Good collaboration with relevant ministries –institutions, Recipient
countries, and development partners (ILO and IOM…etc)
. Collaborate with destination countries to facilitate irregular
migrant workers to become regular (Thailand)
Challenges:
. MoLVT got few year experiences
. High cost of sending migrant Cambodian workers
. Formulate sound management, policy and strengthen its legal
framework and institution
. Capacity development and limited human resource and legal
frameworks
Conclusion
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Emigration is an opportunity if well manage
Tri-parties (government, trade union, and recruitment agency)
Education and adequate skill could help domestic workers from
enjoying the high paid and hygiene job category
Job opportunity abroad can be much maximized if proper skill
can be equipped to labor
Spotting higher job opportunity in higher development
countries like Australia, EU, or OECD
A pre-departure orientation about the risk and challenges that
are likely to emerge while abroad and re-integration program
should be adjusted and strengthening
Thank you very much!!!
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