Chapt11 Lecture 13ed Pt 3

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Human Biology
Sylvia S. Mader
Michael Windelspecht
Chapter 11
Skeletal System
Lecture Outline
Part 3
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1
11.3 Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton
Skeletal remains
•
Characteristics to be determined
–
Age is approximated through dentition,
studying areas of bone ossification, and joint
condition.
–
For gender, it is best to use the pelvic bone,
but the thickness of long bones or skull
characteristics may also be used.
–
Ethnicity is difficult to tell, but skull
characteristics are most useful.
2
11.4 Articulations
Types of joints
(where bones meet bones)
• __________ – usually immovable such as
the sutures between cranial bones
• ______________ – tend to be slightly
movable such as the intervertebral disks
• __________ – freely movable joints such as
the ball-and-socket hip and shoulder joints,
and the hinge knee and elbow joints
3
11.4 Articulations
Anatomy of a synovial joint
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
a: © Gerard Vandystadt/Photo Researchers, Inc.
bursae
joint cavity
filled with
synovial fluid
articular
cartilage
meniscus
meniscus
ligament
ligament
head of humerus
scapula
b. Generalized synovial joint
ulna
humerus
c. Ball-and-socket
joint
a. A gymnast depends on flexible joints.
Figure 11.9 The structure of a synovial joint.
d. Hinge joint
4
11.4 Articulations
Summary of synovial joints movements
• Flexion – __________ in joint angle
• Extension – _________ in joint angle
• __________ – body part moves toward
midline
• __________ – body part moves away from
midline
5
11.4 Articulations
Summary of synovial joints movements
• Rotation – body part moves around its own
axis
• Supination – hand faces anterior or downward
• Pronation – hand faces posterior or downward
• Circumduction – body part moves so that a
cone shape is outlined
6
11.4 Articulations
Summary of synovial joints movements
• Inversion – sole of foot turns inward
• Eversion – sole of foot turns outward
7
11.4 Articulations
Visualizing synovial joints movements
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Rotation:
Body part
moves around
its own axis.
extension
flexion
abduction
flexion
extension
abduction
Inversion:
Sole of foot
turns inward.
adduction
flexion
adduction
extension
abduction
adduction
Flexion:
Joint angle
decreases.
a.
Extension:
Joint angle
increases.
Adduction:
Body part moves
toward midline.
Supination:
Hand faces anterior
or downward.
Pronation:
Hand faces posterior
or downward.
Abduction:
Body part moves
away from midline.
b.
c.
Circumduction:
Body part moves
so that a cone
shape is outlined.
Eversion:
Sole of foot
turns outward.
d.
Figure 11.10 Synovial joints allow for a variety of movement.
8
11.5 Bone Growth and Homeostasis
What are the important cells in bone
growth, remodeling, and repair?
• Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells
• Osteocytes – mature bone cells that maintain
bone structure derived from osteoblasts
• Osteoclasts – bone-absorbing cells
• Chondroytes – cartilage-forming cells
9
11.5 Bone Growth and Homeostasis
How does bone develop?
•
Ossification is the formation of bone in 2 distinct
ways.:
1.
_____________________ – bone development
between sheets of fibrous connective tissue; used
in flat bones
2.
_____________________ – cartilage is replaced
by bone; used by most bones
10
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