Chapter 15 Immigrants and Urbanization

Chapter 15 Immigrants and
Section 1 The New
Through the Golden Door
Millions of immigrants
entered the U.S. in the
late 19th and early 20th
centuries because they
were lured by the
promise of a better life.
Immigrants from Europe
-from 1870-1920
approximately 20 million
Europeans arrived.
-Immigrants from China and
– They came to the West
– Between 1851-1883
200,000 Chinese arrived.
– Many came to seek their
fortunes after the discovery
of gold in 1848 sparked the
California gold rush.
Immigrants from the West
Indies and Mexico
- Between 1880-1920
about 260,000
immigrants arrived in the
Eastern and
Southeastern U.S.
- Some Mexicans came
to find work or to flee
political turmoil.
Life in the New Land
- The journey was
- Almost all immigrants
traveled from steamship.
- The trip from Europe
took one week.
- Immigrants were rarely
allowed on the main
- No fresh air, lice
infested, crowded,
diseases spread.
Life in the New Land
Ellis Island (Europeans)
– In the New York Harbor
– Immigrants faced loneliness,
homesickness and anxiety.
– About 20 % of those who
arrived, were retained for a
day or more before being
– 2% had to return home.
– Had to pass a physical,
passing a literacy test in their
native language, proof of
ability to work and have at
least $25.00 on them.
– More than 16 mil. passed
Angel Island (Asians)
– Located on the West Coast in
San Francisco Bay.
– Between 1910-1940 about
500,000 Chinese immigrants
entered the U.S. through the
– Here conditions were harsher.
– There was harsh questioning,
long detention while govt.
officials decided whether to
admit or reject an immigrant
– There was a protest in 1919.
– The Chinese immigrants were
confined like prisoners.
Culture Shock
– Confusion and anxiety from
immersion in a different
Cooperation for Survival
Immigration Restrictions
Melting Pot
– A mixture of people of different
cultures and races
Rise of Nativism
– A response to the growing
numbers of immigrants in the
– It gained support as suspicion
and fear of foreigners grew.
Anti-Asian Sentiment
– Prejudice against Asians was
first directed against the
– The depression of 1873
intensified it in California
– Jobs were scarce and there
was fear that work would go to
the Chinese because they
were willing to work for low
– Chinese Exclusion Act
– The Gentlemen’s Agreement
15.2 The Problems of Urbanization
Urban Opportunities
Immigrants settle in the Cities
– The people who came
became city dwellers, because
cities were the cheapest to live
– Immigrants often clustered in
ethnic neighborhoods with
others from the same countryor even the same village.
Migration from Country to City
Farming more efficient, less
laborers needed.
Urban Cultural Opportunities
Urban Problems
– Housing
As the urban population
increased , new types of
housing were designed
– Row Houses
Attached single –family
dwellings that shared side
walls with other similar
houses, packed blocks.
– Dumbbell tenements
Long narrow, 5 or 6 story
buildings shaped like barbells.
Urban Problems
– Getting around the city safely and
efficiently was a problem.
– Before industrialization people
went on foot or by horse drawn
Cable cars in 1873
Electric streetcar line
– Supplying fresh water that was
safe to drink.
– Large cities like NYC seldom had
indoor plumbing.
– Diseases
– Chlorination introduced in 1893
and filtration in 1908
– Keeping the cities clean became
a challenge.
– Private trash collectors were hired
to sweep the streets.
– Sewer lines and sanitation
departments were in cities by
– Since there was limited water in
cities, it contributed to the spread
of fires.
– In San Francisco deadly fires
would breakout after earthquakes.
– As population rose, so did crime.
– Pickpockets, clever scams, gangs.
– First full time salaried police force
in NYC in 1844.
Reformers Mobilize
Social Gospel Movement
– Social welfare reformers
targeted efforts at relieving the
poverty of immigrants and
other city dwellers.
– This movement preached
salvation through service to
the poor.
Settlement-House Movement
– Inspired by the Social Gospel
movement, this movement
was a response to the call to
help the urban poor.
– In late 1800s, a few reformers
established settlement
houses, which were
community centers in local
slum neighborhoods that
provided assistance and
friendship to local men women
and children especially
– Jane Adams founded
Chicago’s Hull House in 1889.
15.3 The Emergence of the Political
The Political Machine
– Was an organized group that
controlled activities of a political
party in a city an offered services
to voters and businesses in
exchange for political or financial
– Organized like a pyramid.
– At the base were workers.
– Precinct captains, ward bosses,
and the city boss worked together
to elect their candidate and
guarantee the success of the
The Role of the Political Boss
– The city boss controlled
thousands of municipal jobs,
including those in the police, fire
and sanitation departments.
– $$$ gave the city bosses the drive
to deal with urban issues.
– When they solved problems, they
won people’s loyalty which in turn
was political support and votes.
Immigrants and the Political
– They received sympathetic
understanding form the machines
an in turn became loyal
– Many political bosses were first or
second generation immigrants.
– Bosses provided solutions.
Municipal Graft and Scandal
Election Fraud and Graft
– Political machines and voters
were not the only things
necessary to carry an election so
they turned to fraud.
– Once a political machine got its
candidates in office, it took
advantage of opportunities for
– Ex. of graft is a political machine
would ask a construction worker
who is working for the city to turn
in a bill that is higher than the
actual cost .
– Kickbacks were illegal payments
for services made by political
– Taking these kickbacks made
individual politicians very wealthy.
– Pol. Machines made $ by granting
favors to businesses in return 4 $.
The Tweed Ring Scandal
William Macy Tweed, one of the
earliest and most powerful bosses,
became head of Tammany Hall
He became head of Tammany Hall
which was New York City’s powerful
democratic political machine, 1868.
Between 1869-1871, the Tweed Ring ,
which was a group of corrupt politicians
led by Boss Tweed, pocketed as much
as 200 million dollars from the city in
kickbacks and payoffs.