Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6: Urban America
European and Asian immigrants arrived
in the United States in great numbers
during the late 1800s. Providing cheap
labor, they made rapid industrial growth
possible. They also helped populate the
growing cities.
Section 1 Key Terms, People and
Nativism – hostility towards immigrants
Ellis Island – port of entry in New York Harbor
Angel Island – port of entry in San Francisco
Chinese Exclusion Act – barred Chinese from
entry into the United States from 1882-1943
Section 1 - Immigration
• 1865-1914 25 million Europeans immigrate to
the U.S.
• Before 1890 most immigrants were from
northern and western Europe.
• After 1890 most immigrants were from
southern and eastern Europe
Why Did People Emigrate?
Push factors
– Farm poverty and
worker uncertainty
– Wars and compulsory
military service
– Political tyranny
– Religious oppression
– Population pressure
Pull Factors
– Plenty of land and
plenty of work
– Higher standard of
– Democratic political
– Opportunity for social
• 14 day journey across the
Atlantic in steerage.
• Ellis Island for processing
• Ethnic enclaves –
communities within the
cities that provided
immigrants with
familiarities from their
• Chinese immigrants worked
out west, built many
• Faced segregation and
discrimination, yet
• 1900 – 1910 Japanese arrive
• 1910 - Angel Island opens
• Immigration hearings could
last months.
Nativism Resurges
• Asians, Jews, and eastern Europeans (Catholics)
• Feared Catholics beliefs were incompatible with
American values and Protestant, British culture.
• American Protective Association – 1887,
members vowed not to hire or vote for
• Irish immigrants suffered the most from antiCatholic attitudes: considered lazy and
ignorant, were only able to get low paying,
menial jobs.
Asian Immigration Restricted
• Workingman’s Party of California – 1870’s
• Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 A 10 year ban on Chinese
immigration and prohibition of citizenship for Chinese
already here. (Ban was made permanent in 1902,
repealed in 1943).
• 1906 San Francisco Board of Education orders all
Chinese, Korean, and Japanese children to attend the
“Oriental School”.
• “Gentleman’s Agreement” between Theodore
Roosevelt and Japanese Prime Minister. Order
rescinded in exchange for a limit on Japanese
Section 2 – Urbanization
• Americans Migrate to the Cities
– Immigrants with little money settled into cities
– Rural Americans and farmers moved to the cities for
better paying jobs and more opportunities.
– Limited space meant building up, not out.
• 1885 Chicago’s 10 story skyscraper built
• New York City had more skyscrapers than any city in the
• Elevated railroads and underground subway systems
Separation by Class
• High Society – Super rich, multiple mansions,
many servants, luxurious lifestyle
• Middle Class Gentility – Large home in
suburbs, one or more servants, wife didn’t
• Working Class – lived in tenements, both
parents worked, kids worked too, little money
left over
Urban Problems
Crime and Pollution
• Crime
• Fire
• Pollution
Machine Politics
– horse manure in streets •
– Smoke, soot and ash
from coal and wood fires •
• Disease
– Typhoid fever
– cholera
Political Machines
Party Bosses
Fraud and Graft
Tammany Hall
William “Boss”
Section 2 Homework
• Read section 2, pages 222 -227
Re-read the Machine Politics paragraphs on page
227 and the Primary Source quote by George
Plunkett on page 226 and answer the following
1.What did party bosses like Plunkett offer to
immigrants and working class people in cities?
2.What does Plunkett mean by the phrase
“honest Graft”?
3.How does political corruption hurt the
George Plunkett and
Machine Politics
When George Plunkett died in 1924 he was
eulogized this way;
“He understood that in politics honesty
doesn't matter, efficiency doesn't matter,
progressive vision doesn't matter. What
does matter is the chance for a better job,
a better price of wheat, better business
conditions. Plunkett's legacy is to that
Political Cartoon Assignment
Find a political cartoon in a recent newspaper.
Interpret the meaning of the cartoon and
explain the symbolism and stereotypes being
used. Do you agree or disagree with the
cartoon? Why?
Attach the cartoon to a piece of loose-leaf
paper, along with your written responses.
Due Monday, November 22.
Extra Credit
• Research an incident of political corruption in
the 20th or 21st century (1900 – 2010) and
describe the outcome. What was the offense?
Was the person removed from office? Did the
incident have an impact on the community?
How does it compare to corruption of the late
1800’s? Due Tuesday, November 23.
Section 3 – The Gilded Age
• Individualism – abilities will allow for success
• Naturalism – failure can be out of your control
• Social Darwinism
– “Survival of the fittest”
• Gospel of Wealth
– Help people help themselves
– Schools, hospitals, libraries, etc…
• The Social Gospel
– Salvation Army, YMCA, settlement houses
– Jane Adams – Hull House
Section 3 Assignment
• Read section 3, pages 230 – 232 and 236 – 239
1. Write a paragraph describing the ideas of
Social Darwinism, the Gospel of Wealth, and the
Social Gospel.
2. Write additional paragraphs analyzing the
positive and negatives of each social theory.
3. Explain which social theory you think is best
and why.
Section 3 Assignment (9)
• Read section 3, pages 230 – 232 and 236 – 239
1. Identify Social Darwinism, the Gospel of
Wealth, and the Social Gospel.
2. Describe the positive and negatives of each
social theory.
3. Explain which social theory you think is best
and why.
Section 5 – The Rise of Segregation
• Exodusters head to Kansas
• Imposing Segregation
– Poll Tax
– Literacy tests
– “grandfather clause”
– Jim Crow Laws
• Plessy v. Ferguson 1892 -“Separate but Equal”
• The African American Response
– Booker T. Washington – compromise & education
– W.E.B. Du Bois – activism & change now
Chapter 6 Study Guide
• How did Booker T. Washington think African–
Americans should work to end discrimination?
• How did W.E.B. DuBois think African-Americans
should work to end discrimination?
• What issue did Jacob Riis think was a problem
for society?
• How did immigration patterns change between
1870 and 1900?
• What organization did nativists fear would gain
too much power because of immigration?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
• What did organizations like the Salvation Army
and the YMCA offer to the urban poor?
• How did Tammany Hall operate?
• What were “streetcar suburbs”?
• What “pulled” many Chinese immigrants to the
United States?
• What were the main ideas of Social Darwinism?
• What were the main ideas of the Gospel of
• What were the main ideas of the Social Gospel?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
What function did Ellis and Angel Island serve?
What was the philosophy of Individualism?
What was the philosophy of Naturalism?
What did immigrants receive from political
machines in exchange for their votes?
• Why were subway systems initially developed?
• What was the main goal of nativists?
• Why were skyscrapers developed and what was
the first one like?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
• Why did labor unions oppose immigration?
• Why was the Workingman’s Party formed?
• Who was William “Boss” Tweed and what
happened to him?
• What “push” factors brought many immigrants
to the United States?
• What “pull” factors brought many immigrants to
the United States?
• What problems existed in cities and what caused
those problems?