Gettysburg Staff Ride • Five Objectives: – Comprehend strategy-policy complexities & apply that to modern operations – Analyze relationships between the strategic, operational, and tactical levels – Analyze how historical mindedness applied to the study of military battles helps one to think about war as an instrument of policy – Evaluate strategic thinking of political and military leaders – Identify and evaluate critical tactical events and their impact on the overall campaign Policy-Strategy Formulation Policy D I M E “Levels of War” Strategic Operational Tactical War Campaigns Battles “War is merely the continuation of policy by other means.” - Carl von Clausewitz National Policy Objectives “Independence” “Preserve the Union” Aftermath: Short Term • Casualties – North: 23,049 of 95,000 (24%) – South: 28,063 of 75,000 (37%) • Confederates Repulsed = Northern Victory… But a Cautious Pursuit to the Potomac Allows Lee to Escape to Virginia Aftermath: Long Term • Gettysburg Address: Lincoln gives Political Significance to the Battle • New Policy Aim: “Four score & seven years ago…” & “…new birth of freedom,” • Cost in Blood & Treasure Beyond Point of No Return: “…last full measure of devotion-” & “…highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain-” Gettysburg is a Tactical Event with Strategic-Political Effect Aftermath: Long Term (continued) • Post-Gettysburg: Lincoln Finds a (Killer) General • Grant Understands Lee’s Army is Confederate Center of Gravity (COG) • Grant Understands Southern Civilians must Feel the Hard Hand of War Signals transformation in Character of War Ulysses S. Grant Leadership Issues/Challenges • • • • • • • • • Commander’s (Boss’s) Intent/Vision? Political landscape? Common Understanding throughout? How do you get your information? What’s changed?? How to adapt? Who are your key subordinates? Who are the players outside your organization? Impact of experience/significant events? Risk? How much is enough? Questions to consider… Were military strategies consistent with national objectives? Were operational plans compatible with military objectives? Feasible? Suitable? Acceptable? How were tactical decisions on the field shaped by operational and strategic considerations?