The Duel for North America 1689 - 1763 New France Edict of Nantes in 1598 ended religious wars in France. French found New France Quebec in 1608. Jacques Cartier Samuel de Champlain The “Father of New France” French influence in the New World French traders and explorers made pacts with the Huron Indians of the lower Great Lakes. French Canada The Iroquois, enemies of the Huron, became enemies of the French. French fur traders, the Coureurs de Bois and Voyageurs, lived among and intermarried with the Native Americans. Jesuit missionaries sought, often forcibly, to convert the Indians to Catholicism. French Voyageur Robert de la Salle 1682 - French explorer de la Salle canoed down the Mississippi searching for the mouth of the river. He failed to find the opening through the delta and was killed in Texas in 1687. French Expansion 1701 - Louis XIV orders the establishment of the colony of Louisiana and settlements in the interior. Detroit founded on Lake Huron by Antoine Cadillac The First World Wars 1688 - 97 --- The War of the League of Augsburg (King William’s War) 1701 - 1713 --- The War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) 1713 - Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War England gains Acadia, renamed Nova Scotia, New Foundland and Hudson’s Bay Period of “Salutary Neglect” begins in America 1739 - War of Jenkin's Ear war fought between Spain and England over trade rights. 1740 - 48 -- War of the Austrian Succession. (King George’s War) Spain and France fight England 1740 - Oglethorpe’s raid on St. Augustine fails. 1744 - Lancaster Treaty. Treaty signed with Indians in Pennsylvania 1745 New England troops capture Fort Louisbourg on the St. Lawrence River 1748 Ohio Company of Virginia founded. Land sought in the Ohio Valley. 1748 -- Treaty of Aix-laChapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession. Ft. Louisbourg returned to France - New England is outraged. 1753 Susquehanna Company founded. George Washington’s first mission to the Ohio Valley. Americans continue settling in disputed Ohio territory. French answer by building a string of forts. 1754 Virginians sent to build fort at site of modern Pittsburgh (chosen by young surveyor George Washington). The site is the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny that form the Ohio River. This is seen as an act of war by France, who already had its own fort there -- Ft. Duquesne. Virginia militia under Washington open fire on French troops -- starting the French and Indian War. The French and Indian War (1754 - 1763) Washington is defeated in his first battle - July 4, 1754 at Fort Necessity. Fort Necessity Today Colonists meet at Albany Congress to arrange a common defense -- Ben Franklin publishes cartoon “Join, or Die.” Only seven out of thirteen colonies sent delegates to the conference. Join or Die The initial purpose was to keep the Iroquois on the side of the British. Franklin’s “Albany Plan of Union” is agreed to by the delegates but rejected by the colonial legislatures and the English Parliament. 1755 -- Braddock Blunders General Braddock’s “redcoats” and colonial “buckskins” are routed again at Fort Dusquesne. Braddock is mortally wounded. British force 4,000 French Acadians to move to Louisiana. British Redcoats 1756 French capture Fort Oswego Earl of Loudoun assumes command of British Colonial forces British forces fail in attempts to invade Canada. Indian raids into colonies and military defeats followed until 1757. French Regulars 1757 William Pitt becomes British Prime Minister - reorganizes the army. 1757 - French take Fort William Henry. 1758 - British capture Forts Louisbourg, Frontenac and Dusquesne 1759 Iroquois agree to aid British forces. The Battle of Quebec British take Quebec in 1759 - General Wolfe dies in the battle on the Plains of Abraham. French General Montcalm is also killed. The Death of General Wolfe Montreal falls in 1760. Paris Peace Treaty (1763) gives all French territory east of the Mississippi to England - Spain takes Louisiana, England gets Florida. Friction between England and the Colonies American colonists felt they had defeated the French and Indians and looked down on English regular army. Western Expansion Americans wanted to settle new lands acquired in the war. Settlers begin pouring into western New York and Pennsylvania and along the upper Ohio river. Watersheds and the Importance of the Ohio River. Pontiac’s War Indians, led by Ottawa chief Pontiac, resisted white settlements and attacked British forts. Proclamation Line of 1763 British refused to allow settlement across the Appalachians by the Proclamation of 1763. British Parliament wanted the settlers to help pay for the cost of the war. Americans meeting and fighting together in the war realized their similarities.