Chapter 6 - The Duel for North America

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The Duel for North
America
1689 - 1763
New France
Edict
of Nantes in 1598 ended religious wars in
France.
French found New France Quebec in 1608.
Jacques
Cartier
Samuel de Champlain
The
“Father of
New France”
French influence in the New
World
French traders
and explorers
made pacts
with the
Huron Indians
of the lower
Great Lakes.
French Canada

The Iroquois, enemies of
the Huron, became enemies
of the French.
French
fur
traders, the
Coureurs de Bois
and Voyageurs,
lived among and
intermarried
with the Native
Americans.
Jesuit
missionaries
sought, often
forcibly, to
convert the
Indians to
Catholicism.
French
Voyageur
Robert de la Salle
1682
- French explorer de la
Salle canoed down the
Mississippi searching for the
mouth of the river.
He failed to find the opening
through the delta and was
killed in Texas in 1687.
French Expansion
1701
- Louis XIV orders the
establishment of the colony of
Louisiana and settlements in
the interior.
Detroit founded on Lake
Huron by Antoine Cadillac
The First World Wars
1688
- 97 --- The War of the
League of Augsburg (King
William’s War)
1701 - 1713 --- The War of
the Spanish Succession (Queen
Anne’s War)
1713 - Treaty of Utrecht
ends Queen Anne's War
England
gains Acadia,
renamed Nova Scotia, New
Foundland and Hudson’s Bay
Period of “Salutary Neglect”
begins in America
1739 - War of Jenkin's Ear
war
fought between Spain and
England over trade rights.
1740 - 48 -- War of the
Austrian Succession.
(King
George’s War)
Spain and France fight
England
1740 - Oglethorpe’s raid on St.
Augustine fails.
1744 - Lancaster Treaty.
Treaty
signed with Indians in
Pennsylvania
1745  New
England
troops capture
Fort Louisbourg
on the St.
Lawrence River
1748
Ohio
Company of Virginia
founded.
Land sought in the Ohio
Valley.
1748 -- Treaty of Aix-laChapelle
ends
the War of the Austrian
Succession.
Ft. Louisbourg returned to
France - New England is
outraged.
1753
Susquehanna
Company
founded.
George Washington’s first
mission to the Ohio Valley.
Americans
continue
settling in disputed
Ohio territory.
French answer by
building a string of
forts.
1754
Virginians
sent to build fort at
site of modern Pittsburgh
(chosen by young surveyor
George Washington).
The
site is the confluence of
the Monongahela and
Allegheny that form the Ohio
River.
This
is seen as an act of war
by France, who already had
its own fort there -- Ft.
Duquesne.
Virginia militia under
Washington open fire on
French troops -- starting the
French and Indian War.
The French and Indian War
(1754 - 1763)
Washington is defeated in his
first battle - July 4, 1754 at
Fort Necessity.

Fort Necessity Today
Colonists
meet at
Albany Congress
to arrange a
common defense
-- Ben Franklin
publishes cartoon
“Join, or Die.”
Only
seven out of thirteen
colonies sent delegates to the
conference.
Join or Die
The
initial purpose was to keep
the Iroquois on the side of the
British.
Franklin’s “Albany Plan of
Union” is agreed to by the
delegates but rejected by the
colonial legislatures and the
English Parliament.
1755 -- Braddock Blunders
General
Braddock’s “redcoats”
and colonial “buckskins” are
routed again at Fort
Dusquesne.
Braddock is mortally wounded.
British force 4,000 French
Acadians to move to Louisiana.
British
Redcoats
1756
French
capture Fort
Oswego
Earl of Loudoun
assumes command of
British Colonial forces
British
forces fail in
attempts to invade
Canada.
Indian raids into
colonies and military
defeats followed until
1757.
French Regulars
1757
William
Pitt becomes British
Prime Minister - reorganizes
the army.
1757
- French take Fort
William Henry.
1758 - British capture
Forts Louisbourg,
Frontenac and
Dusquesne
1759
Iroquois
agree to
aid British
forces.
The Battle of Quebec
British
take Quebec in
1759 - General Wolfe dies
in the battle on the Plains
of Abraham.
French General Montcalm
is also killed.
The Death of General Wolfe
Montreal
falls in 1760.
Paris Peace Treaty (1763)
gives all French territory east
of the Mississippi to England - Spain takes Louisiana,
England gets Florida.
Friction between England
and the Colonies
American colonists felt they
had defeated the French and
Indians and looked down on
English regular army.

Western Expansion
Americans
wanted to settle
new lands acquired in the war.
Settlers begin pouring into
western New York and
Pennsylvania and along the
upper Ohio river.
Watersheds
and the
Importance
of the
Ohio River.
Pontiac’s War
Indians,
led by Ottawa chief
Pontiac, resisted white
settlements and attacked
British forts.
Proclamation Line of 1763
 British
refused
to allow
settlement
across the
Appalachians by the
Proclamation
of 1763.
British
Parliament wanted the
settlers to help pay for the cost
of the war.
Americans meeting and
fighting together in the war
realized their similarities.
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