Fascist in Italy and
Fascist in Italy
Benito Mussolini, a former socialist, organized
the Fascist Party.
 Fascism
was a doctrine that relied on dictatorship
and a totalitarian regime.
Fascism was the opposite of communism.
Communism promised a society
without social classes in which property is shared.
Fascism promised to preserve social
classes and private property.
Italy and Black Shirts
Fascists were called Black Shirts for the
color of their uniforms.
 They
conducted violent campaigns against
opponents, breaking up strikes and
intimidating voters.
 Appointed Mussolini as premier.
Once in office Mussolini destroyed democracy,
suspended basic liberties, and became dictator.
 Uniformed and secret police spied on everyone.
Corporatist State
He made Italy a corporatist state.
 Major
economic activities, such as agriculture,
transportation,manufacturing, and commerce,
were organized into corporations.
 They preserved social classes, private
property, and limited profits.
German Change
Delegates drafted a constitution in the city of
Weimar (VY·mar).
 The
government became known as the Weimar
 Germans despised the Weimar Republic for signing
the Treaty of Versailles
 Germany faced the same economic, political, and
social problems as other European countries.
Nazi Party
The new National Socialist German Workers’
Party, or Nazi Party
 extremely
nationalistic and anticommunist.
 By 1921 Adolf Hitler was head of the party.
 He called the Germans the “master race.”
 outlined his plan for racial purity through elimination of
Jews and other “impure” races.
 Hitler promised to restore Germany’s power and its
lost lands.
Taking Over
In 1933 the president of the republic appointed
Hitler as chancellor.
 Someone
set fire to the Reichstag.
 Hitler blamed the communists
he made himself dictator.
took the title der Führer (FYOOR·ur)
He made Germany a police state, banning opposition parties
and newspapers.
He gave the Gestapo, a secret police force, wide-ranging
Jewish Question
Jews suffered persecution.
 forced
them to live in separate neighborhoods
called ghettos.
 Jews had to wear the Star of David,
 sent them to concentration camps.
Third Reich
Hitler reminded Germans of their nation’s
former glory.
called his rule the Third Reich, or “Third
 He
He violated the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany began secretly rebuilding its military.
 Neither France nor England reacted.