AP World History

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AP WORLD HISTORY
Chapter 17 & 20 Christianity and Medieval Europe
Unit 3
Journal 12-1-14
Why did the Western Roman Empire
Fall?

Internal Pressures
 Power
struggle (between 235 -241 ce 41 different
people claimed to be emperor)
 Empire was too large
 Soldiers loyal to Generals rather than Rome
 Disease (small pox & measles) ravaged population

External Pressures ( Hun invasions, Visigoths,
Ostrogoth's, Vandals, and Franks)
What were the contributions of
Charlemagne's reign, and why did it
ultimately fail to last very long?




Used missi dominici
extended empire to northeast Spain, Bavaria, north
Italy
Created schools & emphasis on arts ( Carolingian
Renaissance)
It fell because Charlemagne's only surviving son;
lost control of the counts
 Divided
empire among Charlemagne’s sons
What role did the serfs play in early
medieval Europe? What was life like
on the manor?



•
Worked the land for the lords in return for
protection and small plots of land
Could not leave land without permission
Manor: Large estate consisting of fields, meadows,
forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers, & Serfs
bound to the land
Had bakeries, mills, breweries, wineries
Friendly Reminders 


Read chapters 17 & 20
Discussion question due before Friday
Periodization
Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Europe in the 6 century
“Dark Ages”




500 -1000
a time of decreased
architectural & building
techniques, organized
government, and less
long distance trade.
Most Germanic people
could not read or write
Decentralized
governments
What was the one unifying factor in Western Europe?


Notre Dame Cathedral- Paris, France

the church
controlled about
1/3 of the land in
Western Europe.
tithe  1/10 tax
on your assets
given to the
church.
Carolingian Empire (Carol means
Charles in Latin)
Clovis 486
(Converted to
Roman
Catholicism)
Charles Martel
732
Charlemagne
742-814ce
The Rise of the Franks ( temporary
revival)


Under ________ the
Franks become the
dominant power in
Western Europe
Clovis converted to
_________, which in
turn helped the Franks
the gain the support of
the Catholic Church
Charles Martel “The Hammer”



Charles Martel
founder of the
Carolingian Empire
Known for his military
prowess
Defeated the Muslims
in the Battle of Tours
Charlemagne: 742 to 814





United Western Europe
Missi Dominici- “Envoys of the
Lord Ruler”
Defender of Roman
Catholicism
Capital @Aachen, established
centralized rule
History Teachers Song
:Charlemagne
The Carolingian Renaissance
Pope Crowned Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
Charlemagne’s Empire “Holy Roman Empire”
Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:
Treaty of Verdun, 843
Charlemagne’s Empire
Carolingian Demise
1.
2.
Charlemagne sons &
grandsons lost control
of the empire in 30
years
Muslims raided from
the south, Magyars
raided from the East,
Vikings from the
North
Viking Long boat
Monasticism


St. Benedict established monastic rules.
St. Benedict (480547) establishes
rules: poverty,
chastity, obedience.
Agricultural laborers,
worked in
scriptoriums, ran inns,
hospitals,
orphanages.
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
A Medieval Monk’s Day
The Medieval Manor
Manor: Large estate
consisting of fields,
meadows, forests,
domestic animals,
lakes, rivers, & Serfs
bound to the land
•Had bakeries, mills,
breweries, wineries
Manorialism*


Manors were primary sources of agricultural
production
Large estate controlled by the lord and deputies
Feudalism: A Land Divided
A political, economic, and social
system based on loyalty and
military service.
Serfs




Not fully free nor fully
slave
Worked the land for
the lords in return for
protection and small
plots of land
Could not leave land
without permission
Worked 3-4 days for
lord
What were the Crusades?



11th-14th century
European Christian
campaigns to retake
Holy land and convert
Muslims
History Teachers Song
on Crusades
Crusades crash course
Why did “Christians” go on Crusades?



Religious Motives: retake
the Holy land from the
Muslims
Economic Motives:
wanted access to trade
routes (silk & spices)
Political Motives: help
the Byzantines retake
land from the Seljuk
Turks
Results of the Crusades




Europe was reintroduced to GrecoRoman Culture
Discovered “Spoils of
the East” as silk, rice,
glass, coffee, & citrus
products
European technology
improved (Compass,
astrolabe, gunpowder)
Weakened manorialism
system & Feudalism
Economics of the Late Middle Ages

Guilds Regulated
production
and sale of goods
 Established standards
of quality for
manufactured goods
 Determined prices and
regulated entry of new
workers
Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League is an
organization of cities in Northern
Germany and Southern Scandinavia.
They were grouped for the sole
purpose of commercial alliance. They
formed the league to encourage
trade. Since the start of banking in
Europe, it became possible for the
countries to organize commercial
trades with each other. The people
from the Hanseatic cities would go
anywhere to gain a profit and to
trade. The league mostly traded
timber, furs, tar, wheat and rye from
the east to the countries in the west.
They eastern countries traded their
items for cloth from the west.
New Technology leads to population
growth



_______ rotation
Heavy plows
Water mills (mills for
processing cloth,
brewing beer, or
grinding flour)
What new technologies led to an
increase in agricultural production in the
Post Classical period?



Mold Board Plow
Crop Rotation
Horse collar
What were the affects of migration in
time period 3 ( 600ce-1450?

Vikings (using their
longboats) migrated
from the Northern
European settling into
Western European
lands
Describe gender roles in W. Europe
during the Middle Ages



Code of Chivalry- honor system that emphasized
loyalty and “gentlemen” like behavior
Very Patriarchal: land equaled power: women could
not inherit land or rule it
Women were admired for beauty and compassion
or “femine” qualities
Historians use the term Middle Ages to
refer to….?

the era from about 500 to 1500 C.E.
In the Early Middle Ages, the economic
activity of Western Europe was

predominantly agricultural
The Holy Roman Empire was “neither
holy, nor Roman, nor an empire”
because
A.
B.
C.
D.
the emperors were not crowned by the popes
the Byzantine emperors did not acknowledge the
Holy Roman Empire
the people who lived there did not practice
Christianity
it did not restore imperial unity to Western Europe
Which one of the following statements
does not describe the crusades?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The campaigns showed European military superiority
to Muslim armies.
One of the crusades conquered Constantinople
instead of recapturing Palestine
The crusaders traded eagerly with Muslim merchants
in the eastern Mediterranean.
The crusaders brought many Muslim ideas back to
Europe with them.
The crusaders introduced to Europe new agricultural
products they learned about from the Muslims.
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