AP WORLD HISTORY Chapter 17 & 20 Christianity and Medieval Europe Unit 3 Journal 12-1-14 Why did the Western Roman Empire Fall? Internal Pressures Power struggle (between 235 -241 ce 41 different people claimed to be emperor) Empire was too large Soldiers loyal to Generals rather than Rome Disease (small pox & measles) ravaged population External Pressures ( Hun invasions, Visigoths, Ostrogoth's, Vandals, and Franks) What were the contributions of Charlemagne's reign, and why did it ultimately fail to last very long? Used missi dominici extended empire to northeast Spain, Bavaria, north Italy Created schools & emphasis on arts ( Carolingian Renaissance) It fell because Charlemagne's only surviving son; lost control of the counts Divided empire among Charlemagne’s sons What role did the serfs play in early medieval Europe? What was life like on the manor? • Worked the land for the lords in return for protection and small plots of land Could not leave land without permission Manor: Large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers, & Serfs bound to the land Had bakeries, mills, breweries, wineries Friendly Reminders Read chapters 17 & 20 Discussion question due before Friday Periodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500 Europe in the 6 century “Dark Ages” 500 -1000 a time of decreased architectural & building techniques, organized government, and less long distance trade. Most Germanic people could not read or write Decentralized governments What was the one unifying factor in Western Europe? Notre Dame Cathedral- Paris, France the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Carolingian Empire (Carol means Charles in Latin) Clovis 486 (Converted to Roman Catholicism) Charles Martel 732 Charlemagne 742-814ce The Rise of the Franks ( temporary revival) Under ________ the Franks become the dominant power in Western Europe Clovis converted to _________, which in turn helped the Franks the gain the support of the Catholic Church Charles Martel “The Hammer” Charles Martel founder of the Carolingian Empire Known for his military prowess Defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours Charlemagne: 742 to 814 United Western Europe Missi Dominici- “Envoys of the Lord Ruler” Defender of Roman Catholicism Capital @Aachen, established centralized rule History Teachers Song :Charlemagne The Carolingian Renaissance Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800 Charlemagne’s Empire “Holy Roman Empire” Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843 Charlemagne’s Empire Carolingian Demise 1. 2. Charlemagne sons & grandsons lost control of the empire in 30 years Muslims raided from the south, Magyars raided from the East, Vikings from the North Viking Long boat Monasticism St. Benedict established monastic rules. St. Benedict (480547) establishes rules: poverty, chastity, obedience. Agricultural laborers, worked in scriptoriums, ran inns, hospitals, orphanages. A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium A Medieval Monk’s Day The Medieval Manor Manor: Large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers, & Serfs bound to the land •Had bakeries, mills, breweries, wineries Manorialism* Manors were primary sources of agricultural production Large estate controlled by the lord and deputies Feudalism: A Land Divided A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. Serfs Not fully free nor fully slave Worked the land for the lords in return for protection and small plots of land Could not leave land without permission Worked 3-4 days for lord What were the Crusades? 11th-14th century European Christian campaigns to retake Holy land and convert Muslims History Teachers Song on Crusades Crusades crash course Why did “Christians” go on Crusades? Religious Motives: retake the Holy land from the Muslims Economic Motives: wanted access to trade routes (silk & spices) Political Motives: help the Byzantines retake land from the Seljuk Turks Results of the Crusades Europe was reintroduced to GrecoRoman Culture Discovered “Spoils of the East” as silk, rice, glass, coffee, & citrus products European technology improved (Compass, astrolabe, gunpowder) Weakened manorialism system & Feudalism Economics of the Late Middle Ages Guilds Regulated production and sale of goods Established standards of quality for manufactured goods Determined prices and regulated entry of new workers Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League is an organization of cities in Northern Germany and Southern Scandinavia. They were grouped for the sole purpose of commercial alliance. They formed the league to encourage trade. Since the start of banking in Europe, it became possible for the countries to organize commercial trades with each other. The people from the Hanseatic cities would go anywhere to gain a profit and to trade. The league mostly traded timber, furs, tar, wheat and rye from the east to the countries in the west. They eastern countries traded their items for cloth from the west. New Technology leads to population growth _______ rotation Heavy plows Water mills (mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, or grinding flour) What new technologies led to an increase in agricultural production in the Post Classical period? Mold Board Plow Crop Rotation Horse collar What were the affects of migration in time period 3 ( 600ce-1450? Vikings (using their longboats) migrated from the Northern European settling into Western European lands Describe gender roles in W. Europe during the Middle Ages Code of Chivalry- honor system that emphasized loyalty and “gentlemen” like behavior Very Patriarchal: land equaled power: women could not inherit land or rule it Women were admired for beauty and compassion or “femine” qualities Historians use the term Middle Ages to refer to….? the era from about 500 to 1500 C.E. In the Early Middle Ages, the economic activity of Western Europe was predominantly agricultural The Holy Roman Empire was “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire” because A. B. C. D. the emperors were not crowned by the popes the Byzantine emperors did not acknowledge the Holy Roman Empire the people who lived there did not practice Christianity it did not restore imperial unity to Western Europe Which one of the following statements does not describe the crusades? A. B. C. D. E. The campaigns showed European military superiority to Muslim armies. One of the crusades conquered Constantinople instead of recapturing Palestine The crusaders traded eagerly with Muslim merchants in the eastern Mediterranean. The crusaders brought many Muslim ideas back to Europe with them. The crusaders introduced to Europe new agricultural products they learned about from the Muslims.