Challenges to the New Republic (1789-1825) I can analyze and explain the major domestic and foreign crises that faced the United States after the adoption of the Constitution. The “Father of Our Country” 1789-1797 First Cabinet: Jefferson – Sec. of State; Hamilton -Sec. of Treasury Hamilton wanted a large National Bank (the Bank of the U.S. in 1792) – it barely passed Congress He wanted stable economy, strong defense, no national debt and a way to regulate state and local banks. Disagreement over the Bank led to our first political parties The Federalists – Led by Hamilton; believed in a loose interpretation of Constitution (Elastic Clause) Democratic-Republicans – Led by Jefferson; wanted a strict interpretation of Constitution and said the National Bank was unconstitutional The French Revolution (17891799) created problems for the U.S. The U.S. said it was neutral. Were we? 1793 – Britain began seizing U.S. ships and impressing U.S. sailors – forcing them into British Navy Jay’s Treaty (1794) – British gave up forts on American side of Great Lakes, but kept restrictions on U.S. shipping/ trade. War with Britain was avoided, but some cried foul. American forces under General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeat alliance of Native Americans led by Shawnee War chief, Blue Jacket, near Toledo, Ohio. This led to increased western settlement as Indians gave up 2/3 of Ohio and S. Indiana. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain - (got LA from France in 1763) allowed the U.S. to use the port of New Orleans to export goods – very important for western settlement Problems with France (offended by Jay’s Treaty) dominated the Adams (Federalist) Presidency France copied Britain and began seizing and fighting with American ships, called the Quasi-War (17981800) Alien Act of 1798 – toughened the citizenship requirements for immigrants and restricted free speech. Most new immigrants usually voted DemocraticRepublican, not Federalist. Sedition Act of 1798 – made it illegal to criticize the government in a time of crisis (i.e. the French threat). Democratic-Republican didn’t believe in a strong presidency or federal government; he was for “states’ rights” Had Congress remove Alien & Sedition Acts; he was for 1st Amendment Reduced taxes, Federal government spending, and national debt Marbury vs. Madison (1803) – Supreme Court Case that set precedent for judicial review – the power to decide the constitutionality of federal law. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) – from France for $15 Million was apex of his presidency Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804-06) – Explored Louisiana Territory & reached Pacific Ocean Zebulon Pike Expedition (1806-07) explored SW Louisiana Territory – captured by Spanish in Colorado; released later Britain practiced impressment – a policy of seizing U.S. sailors and forcing them to work in Royal Navy Embargo Act of 1807 – suspended trade with Great Britain Thought Britain would need our food and cotton more than we needed their clothing – Embargo failed because it hurt U.S. economy Congress ended it in1809 as Jefferson left office, but problems with Britain didn’t end The War of 1812 – Madison felt there was no choice but war with Britain Often called “the second war of Independence” Britain invaded Washington, DC & burned Capitol, White House The U.S. tried, but failed to take Canada U.S. held off more powerful Britain and their Indian allies Battle of New Orleans (1815) – Andrew Jackson becomes a national hero with great American victory Wanted to prevent Spain or any other European nation from re-establishing colonies in the Americas Monroe Doctrine (1823) – said we would use force to keep Western Hemisphere free of European domination; pledged U.S. would stay out of European affairs We now saw ourselves as the supreme power in the hemisphere We lacked the military to enforce it, but it would shape American foreign policy in the late 1800s and early 1900s 1. Washington set the tradition of appointing a group of advisors known as the _________. a. Directory b. Cabinet c. Judiciary 2. Britain and other European nations declared war on this country when it overthrew the monarchy in 1789? a. Spain b. Prussia c. France 3. Some feel the Louisiana Purchase was his greatest achievement? a. Jefferson b. Madison c. Monroe 4. This failed law of 1807 was passed to keep American ships in port to avoid conflicts with the British Navy? a. Impressment Act b. Embargo Act c. Boycott Act 5. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was passed to a. prevent Mexico from breaking away from Spain. b. prevent European nations from creating new colonies in the Americas. c. prevent Great Britain from trading with the United States.