Chapter 5 Section 1 Come from many different countries ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 50 ethnic groups make up the population 2/3 of Canadians have European ancestry 40% have British roots 27% share a French heritage Germany, Italy, Ukraine, Africa, Asia What is a first nation? ◦ First Nations – descendants of those first settlers from Asia. Cree, Micmac, Abenaki (Abe-na-ki), Ojibwa (O-jib-wa) People have lived in North America for 12,000 years ◦ Oceans were 300 feet lower than today Allowed people to settle in North and South America Bering Strait 1600’s European immigrants came to settle in Canada Britain and France established colonies in Canada similar to the United States ◦ France and Britain long history of conflict continued here. ◦ 1754 – 1763 French and Indian War ◦ Great Britain won, but the French stayed creating disputes Early immigrants were English, Scottish, Irish, French ◦ WW1 – Italy, Poland, Ukraine ◦ WW2 – Germans, Dutch ◦ 1960’s – Africa, Latin America, Asia, the Pacific Islands 1791 – Great Britain created two areas ◦ Upper Canada (Ontario) – British ◦ Lower Canada (Quebec) - French 1867 – United as Dominion of Canada ◦ Nova Scotia and New Brunswick added 1869 – Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan added 1871 – British Columbia added (now reached the Pacific Ocean Multiculturalism – an acceptance of many cultures instead of just one. Canadian citizens have kept their separate languages and identities (French and British) ◦ Official policy of multiculturalism Similar rights and responsibilities as we do ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Obey Canada’s laws Option of voting Participate in political system Freedom of religion, speech, assembly Land area second to Russia Population is 31 million ◦ US population 316.1 million (2013) ¾ of population live in cities and towns of Southern Canada. Canadians live on farms, and in cities Northern regions are rugged and cold ◦ Few live here British Columbia is “Gateway to the Pacific” Chinese from Hong Kong immigrated at the end of the 20th Century Recently refugees from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia arrived Refugees – people who flee a country because of war, disaster, or persecution 1/12 of Canada’s population ¼ of the immigrant population 70,000 + immigrants arrive each year 40% + population is foreign born (born elsewhere) 10% arrived after 1991 (23 years ago) Toronto is center of industry and international trade.