Important Leaders in Ancient
Greece and Rome
• Glencoe World
• pages 138-168
• SSWH3 The student will examine the political,
philosophical, and cultural interaction of
Classical Mediterranean societies from 700
BCE to 400 CE.
• b. Identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by
Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the
impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar.
Alexander the Great
• King of Macedonia who inherited control of
Greece from his father, Philip II, who had
conquered the region
• Sought to fulfill his father’s dream of
conquering the Persian Empire
• Motivated by the desire for glory and
empire but also by the desire to avenge the
Persian burning of Athens
Alexander’s Conquests
• 334 BC Alexander entered Asia Minor with an
army of 37,000 men, both Macedonians and
• By 332 BC Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were
under his control
• Built Alexandria as the Greek capital of Egypt
• 331 BC victory at Gaugamela gave Alexander
possession of the Persian Empire
Alexander’s Conquests
• Over the next 3 years, Alexander moved east and
northeast as far as modern Pakistan
• In 326 BC he entered India, where his soldiers
refused to go farther
• On the return trip home thousands died from lack of
water as they traveled through the desert of Southern
• Alexander returned to Babylon where he planned
more campaigns but died there in June 323 BC,
exhausted from wounds, fever, and too much alcohol
The Legacy of Alexander
• A great military leader; inspired his men
• Extended Greek and Macedonian rule over a vast
• Stimulated the economies of Greece & Macedon
• Created military monarchies
• Due to his conquests, Greek language, architecture,
literature and art spread throughout Southwest Asia
and the Near East
• The Greeks also absorbed aspects of Eastern culture
From Republic to Empire
• In 60 BC , three men Crassus, Pompey, and
Julius Caesar formed the First Triumvirate.
• A triumvirate is a government by three
people with equal power.
• After Crassus was killed in battle, civil war
emerged between Pompey and Julius Caesar
• Caesar was made dictator in 45 BC
Julius Caesar’s Reforms
• Gave land to the poor
• Increased the Senate to 900 members
• Increasing the numbers and filling it with
his supporters, weakened the power of the
• Planned more building projects and military
adventures but was executed in 44 BC
Augustus Caesar
• Age of Augustus- 31 BC to 14 AD
• Octavian (Julius Caesar's heir and
grandnephew) was his given name
• Given the name Augustus in 27 BC
• Given title Imperator, or commander in
• The first Roman emperor
Augustus Caesar
• Maintained a standing army of 28 legions
(about 150,000 men)
• Stabilized the frontiers of the Roman
Empire, conquering many new areas
• Attempted to conquer Germany but failed

Important Leaders in Ancient Greece and Rome