Mexican IND

Mexico’s Fight for Independence
New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and
Central America) was one of Spain's
most profitable Colonies
Issues in New Spain early 1800’s
• Creoles want full equality of the peninsulares
– Merchants wanted open trade with other nations
• Could only trade with spain
• Meztizo working class- Mines & farming wanted
better wages
– Angry- at elite land owners controlling food prices
– Elite would hold onto suplies of food until hit max
• The Indigenous and Mullatos want end to Tribute
– Tax paid to large land owners and the gov
• Small slave population wants freedom
Situation in Spain
• 1808-1810 Napoleon takes control of Spain
– Creole elites take this opportunity to fight for
– They fear Napoleons liberal government will take
their rights
– They “claimed” to fight for King Ferdinand VII
Initial uprising
• Centered in Queretaro
Group of middle and upperclass creoles planned a
– needed support of masses so
sympathized with demands of
the Indigenous and mestizo.
– Father Miguel Hidalgo(creole)
had influence to recruit the
• Spanish Authorities began to
arrest rebel conspiritors
Father Miguel Hidalgos Revolt
• Grito de Dolores- Sept 16th 1810 Hidalgo gathered his
parishioners declared New Spain free from the Spanish
• The mod went on to take control of the city
• By Sept 28 took key city of Guanajuato
– Killed many Spaniards
– Attacked may business
( most owned by Creoles)
– Opened to Grain
storage for the poor
Fear in Hidalgo’s Revolution
• Hidalgo’s army fought for the right of the poor
• Creole elites wanted freedom not a class and race
• Hidalgo’s goals
Independence from Spain
End of Slavery
End of tribute
More equality for all social classes
No forced labor
Better wages
• These changes would take power from Creole elites
Hidalgo’s Peasant Army
• His soldiers began to take vengeance on both
Spaniards and Creole elites
• His forces were unable to take Mexico City and
were driven north
• By Summer of 1811 Hidalgo and his leaders
were captured and executed
Jose Maria Morelos
• Morelos was a Priest who
continued the fight of Hidalgo
– mestizo
– His forces centered south of Mexico
His goals were the same as Hidalgos
-Independence from Spain, End of Slavery, End of tribute, equality for all
social classes, No forced labor, Better wages
He worked to gain more support of some Creole Elites( some
views were too radical
• His forces were centered in the state of
• His use of Guerrilla tactics were very
National Congress of Chilpancingo1813
• Created a Congress inviting
many creole revolutionaries
– Set himself as chief executive
– Created a Judicial and Legislative
– Enacted many of the social
changes he planned
• Congress only had control of
southern territories he
• Congress did not have a stable
The Down Fall of Morelos
1. Lost battles to royalist forces using
traditional war methods
2. Some of his changes too radical to
gain full Creole support
-Many fought against him
3. 1814 King Ferdinand VII regains
power in Spain
-More Spanish troops are sent
to stop
Rebellion in New Spain
In 1815 Morelos is captured, put on
trial, and executed 12/22
1815-1820 Guerrilla fighting continued
• fighting against Royalists
continued with no central
• Vicente Guerrero Continued a
Guerrilla campaign against
Royalist forces in
Oaxaca(Southern Mexico)
– Mix Creole, Indigenous, Black
• The Cost of fighting, high
taxes, and mistreatment of
Creoles by Spain began to
anger the elites
Creole Elites Take Control of the Revolution
• 1820 Spanish King Ferdinand VII was
• New Spanish Gov enacted liberal Constitution
– This would take some rights from the Creole elite
• Augustine Iturbide-Royalist Creole
– Feared losing power and used this as an excuse to rebel
– Switched sidesto join
– Revolutionary
• (Ironic- joined rebels to
keep creole elite control)
Opposites Combine
Iturbide asked Guerrero to join in support
• Independence from Spain
• Catholic Church
• Representative Republic
• Liberal social reforms of
• Independence from Spain
• Catholic Church
• Monarchy
• Equality of peninsulares and
Mexico is Free
• Aug 24, 1821 Treaty of
Cordoba Signed- The Mexican
Empire was declared
• The combined forces enter
Mexico City Minimal
• Iturbide is crowned Emperor
– Short lived He steps down
from power
– A Republican government is
• Name Mexico comes from the
name of the Aztecs MEXICA.
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