Wars and Other Conflicts of the 18th Century

Wars and Other
Conflicts of the 18
AP European History
Mid 18th Century Wars
1715-1739/1740 = time of peace
War of Jenkins’ Ear, 1739 (England v.
Spain) & War of Austrian Succession,
1740 (Prussia v. Austria) ushers in
new wave of conflict
World-wide conflict from 1739-1815
Armed conflict often overrides
Periods of peace ≠ Stability RATHER
time to recoup strength to fight again
Why war?
Rulers interested in
Principle of self-interest
Balance of power (in their favor, of
Increase territory
Disrupt another’s trade monopoly
Diplomacy advocates two ideas
Protection of dynastic line
Maintenance of national dominance
Armies & Navies of the 18th Century
Expansion of military = taxation = more
efficient & effective centralization of gov’t.
France, Prussia, Austria and Russia all
double, triple, or quadruple military forces!
Officers = landed aristocracy; middle ranks
= middle class; rank-and-file soldiers =
lower classes
Prussia & Russia conscript peasants;
others use foreigners
England – Standing army fluctuates in size
– Parliament doesn’t want a king w/ a large
army! BUT powerful navy
Austria & France consist of volunteers and
Nature of Warfare
Don’t waste resources! Therefore…
Battles of limited objectives
Tactical maneuvers over direct
Strict rules of engagement; defeat ≠
capture or destruction
“The art of surrendering strongholds
honorably after certain conventional
War of Jenkins’ Ear, 1739
British / Spanish rivalry over the West
Spanish practiced search and seizure of
contraband on English ships
British merchants lobbied Parliament in
Robert Walpole (1st British PM) declared
war vs. Spain in 1739
Opened door to ~100 years of worldwide European warfare
War of Austrian Succession, 17401748
Remember Charles VI’s Pragmatic
Sanction? – WELL upon Charles’ death
Frederick the Great violates PS!
1742 Austria cedes Silesia to Prussia =
Prussian population doubles
Draws in France, Spain, and Great Britain
France (Prussia’s ally) occupies
Netherlands and takes Madras in India
(from GB)
Mistake? – Prussia becomes more powerful
state; GB now involved vs. France
War of Austrian Succession,
Maria Theresa maintains Habsburg empire BUT
at what cost?
Magyar nobility now have local authority in Hungary
Hungary = trouble area for Habsburgs
Maria Theresa allies w/ Great Britain
Great Britain takes Louisbourg at St. Lawrence
River in North America (from France)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748
All land returned to original “owners” except Silesia
Spain renewed Treaty of Utrecht w/ Britain so they
could import slaves from Spanish colonies
Diplomatic Revolution - European
Square Dancing – Ally Swapping
Retaliation after loss of Silesia
Three NEW areas of conflict = 3 names
Europe = Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763
India = Great War for Empire, 1756-1763
North America = French and Indian War, 17551763
Great Britain allies with Prussia
Convention of Westminster, Jan. 1756= prevent
foreign troops into German states
MT w/ Count Wenzel von Kaunitz allies with
France, May 1756
Hope is to break Prussia
Spring 1757 Russia, Sweden and several smaller
German states join alliance
Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763
Prussia & Great Britain vs. France,
Russia, and Austria
Prussia under attack on three sides!
Saved by Tsar Peter III’s admiration
for Frederick the Great
Peace of Hubertusburg, 1762 – all
territory returned / Prussia keeps
French and Indian War, 17551763
Greatest conflict of 7 Years’ War
Gulf of the Saint Lawrence
Ohio River Valley
French threatening British expansion
French ally with Native Americans &
William Pitt the Elder – British must stop
French in order to build empire =
colonial war more important
French Navy succumbs to British Navy
Gen. Wolfe vs. Gen. Montcalm at
Quebec, 1759
North America before and after the
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Great War for Empire, 17561763
Great Britain vs. France in
France doesn’t offer enough
financial support to troops
Robert Clive (Great Britain),
small British force & band of
sepoys defeat huge Mughal
army at Battle of Plassey,
GB controls Bengal (area
around Calcutta) =
movement into the interior of
the India
Seven Years’ War
Results of Treaty of Paris, 1763
GB PM earl of Bute brokers Treaty
GB receives:
all of Canada (from France)
Ohio River Valley, eastern half of
Mississippi River valley (from France)
British East India Co growing stronger in
trying to better organize NA territories
increased taxes to cover costs of
Results of Treaty of Paris, 1763
France receives
Pondicherry & Chandernagore in India
Guadeloupe and Martinique in West
Indies BUT no longer great colonial
France in great need of political and
financial reform
Increased taxation to cover cost of
Results of Treaty of Paris, 1763
Prussia permanently holds Silesia
Habsburgs less powerful – dependent
on Hungarian nobility
Spanish Empire intact BUT GB intent
on breaking it.
Receives Louisiana Territory (from
ALL COUNTRIES increase taxation to
cover the cost of warfare