The Coming of War
Chapter 14
Section 1: Dictators and War
Why it Matters
• WWI and the Great
Depression impacted
almost every corner
of the globe.
• Dictatorship and
totalitarianism were
able to grasp many
states (nations)
Focus Question: Why did
totalitarian states rise after
World War I, and what did they
A Bitter Peace Unravels
• With the end of WWI
and the Treaty of
Versailles nations again
were divided over the
terms of peace.
• During the 1920’s many
nations moved toward
democracy and others in
the opposite direction of
• Totalitarianism – a
theory of government in
which a single party or
leader controls the
economic, social, and
cultural lives of its
Checkpoint: What legacy did
World War I leave behind?
Characteristics of a Totalitarian
• Single-Party
• Strong, charismatic
leader often at head
of government
• State control of the
• Use of police, spies,
and terror to enforce
the will of the state
• Government control
of the media and use
of propaganda to
indoctrinate citizens
• Use of schools and
youth organizations
to spread ideology
• Strict censorship of
artists, intellectuals,
and political rivals
Repression in the Soviet Union
and Italy
• The 1917 Russian
Revolution was the
first totalitarian state
• His programs
resulted in civil war,
starvation ,famine,
and death of millions
of Russians
Stalin’s Grip on the Soviet
• Joseph Stalin (man of
steal) - took Lenin’s
place as the head of
the Communist Party
• His attempts to
transform the Soviet
Union into an
industrial power
caused millions of
deaths (purges)
Mussolini’s Fascist Party
Controls Italy
• Italian totalitarianism
was in many ways a
result of the war,
peace treaties, and
economic depression.
• Benito Mussolini –
Fascist Party,
trumpeted nationalism
and promised to make
Italy great again.
Checkpoint: How did Stalin
and Mussolini maintain their
Aggressive Leaders in Germany
and Japan
• After WWI Germany
became a democracy
(Weimar Republic)
• Economic woes and
runaway inflation
plagued the young
The Nazis Rise
• The National Socialist
German Workers’
Party, or Nazi began to
threaten the republic
• They were not
socialists or
communist or any ism
that promoted class
interests or workers’
rights above German
ethnic solidarity
Adolf Hitler
• Adolf Hitler – led the
Nazi Party, failed artist,
wounded and
decorated WWI soldier
• Wrote Mein Kampf
(“My Struggle”) stated
the problems facing
• His most piercing
criticisms were of the
communists and Jews
• Anti-Semitic –
prejudice against
Jewish people
• Anti-Semitism had
troubled Europe for
centuries, motivated
by religious
intolerance and
Hitler Seizes Power
• Recognizing the power
of Hitler’s party
president of the Weimar
Republic appointed
Hitler chancellor of
Germany in 1933
• Over two years he
became chancellor and
president then
consolidated his power
• This was a totalitarian
regime (secret police)
pgs. 438, 440
Militarists Gain Power in Japan
• Reasserting power,
military leaders argued
that expansion through
out Asia would solve
Japan’s economic
• Japan did not become
a totalitarian state, but
remained a
The Japanese Expand Their
• In 1931 Japan
attacked Manchuria
• 1937 Japan moved
against China, gaining
control over major
Chinese railroad links
and coastal areas
• The “Rape of
Nanjing” 200,000
Checkpoint: How did the
Great Depression affect
political life in Germany and
Dictators Turn to Aggression
• Germany and Italy
resorted to acts of
aggression similar to
those of Japan in Asia
• The League of
Nations was
powerless to do
Hitler and Mussolini Threaten
the Peace
• Hitler focused on
restoring Germany’s
economy, army, navy,
and air force in direct
defiance of the Treaty of
• Hitler spoke of the need
to gain Lebensraum,
living space
• Mussolini invaded
Ethiopia with many pleas
and little response for
the League of Nations
Fighting Breaks out in Spain
• Spanish Civil War –
bloody conflict that
raged from 1936 until
• Fascist rebels fought
against Spain's
democratic Republic
aided by Hitler and
Checkpoint: Why did the
League of Nations fail to halt
German and Italian
Aggression Goes Unchecked
• Appeasement –
policy of granting
concessions to a
potential enemy in
the hope that it will
maintain peace
• French and British
policy in the 1930s’
• Anschluss (AHN
shloos) – in the spring
of 1938 Austria’s
entrance into the Reich
• Munich Pact – the
Chamberlain reached
at conference with
Germany declaring
“peace for our time,”
this only delayed WWII
for 11 months
Checkpoint: Why did Britain,
France, and the U.S. not stop
fascist aggression in the
From Isolation to Involvement
Section 2
Why it Matters
• Roosevelt
aggression in Asia
but did little to stop
it, while Britain and
France continued
appeasement in
Focus Question: How did
Americans react to events in
Europe and Asia in the early
years of WWII?
Roosevelt Opposes Aggression
• Roosevelt criticized
Japan’s aggression by
calling it “reign of
terror and
• Roosevelt suggested
that no part of the
world was truly
isolated (pg. 444)
War Erupts in Europe
• Hitler Launches a Blitzkrieg
Against Poland
• Blitzkrieg – sudden attack
(lighting war)
• France Falls to the Axis
• Axis Powers – Germany,
Italy, Japan
• Allied Powers – Britain,
France, Soviet Union, U.S.,
• Winston Churchill – British
Prime Minister
• The Battle of Britain is
fought in the air. (pg. 446)
Checkpoint: Which side
seemed to be winning the war
at the end of 1940?
Americans Debate Involvement
• America Favors
• Theories behind why
the U.S. became
involved in WWI
• Interventionists Urge
Support for the Allies
• Neutrality Act of
1939 – cash and
carry provisions
• Isolationists Argue for
• Trade would
automatically involve
the U.S., argued The
America First
• Roosevelt inches
toward involvement
with the Tripartite Pact
– making allies of
Germany, Italy, and
Should the U.S. Enter World
War II
Isolationist Viewpoint
Interventionist Viewpoint
Make a list of both
viewpoints using your text.
Checkpoint: According to
interventionists, how would
aiding the Allies actually keep
the United States out of war?
America Takes Steps Toward
• Lend-Lease Act –
authorized Roosevelt
to “sell transfer title
to, exchange, lease,
lend, or otherwise
dispose of, to any
such government any
defense article”
• Atlantic Charter –
document that
endorsed national
and an international
system of “general
• U.S. Navy Battles
German U-Boats
Checkpoint: How did the
United States support the
Allies after Roosevelt’s
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