TURN YOUR MIND

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Between Wars
World History
The postwar period is one of loss and uncertainty but
also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas.
POSTWAR UNCERTAINTY
Revolution in Science
Einstein’s Theory
of Relativity
Radically new
ideas in physics
Theory of
relativity — space
and time are not
constant
Make world
seem more
uncertain
•
•
•
Freudian
Psychology
New ideas
about the mind
Claims human
behavior not
based on reason
•
•
Art & Literature
Suffering caused
by World War I
leads many to
doubt old beliefs
Thinkers React to
Uncertainties
Existentialism:
no universal
meaning to life
Surrealism: art
movement that
links dreams
with real life
Jazz: music that
captures new
freedom
Women
Women take on
new roles during
World War I
right to vote
freer clothing
hairstyles
new careers
•
•
•
•
Technology
Automobile
Airplanes
• Lindbergh
Radio
Movies
An economic depression in the United States spreads
throughout the world and lasts for a decade.
A WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION
Financial Collapse
A Flawed U.S. Economy
• Wealth distributed unevenly
• People too poor to buy goods
• Factory owners cut back on
production, lay off workers
• Farmers produce more food
than people can eat, prices fall
• Farmers cannot repay loans and
lose their land
• The stock market crashes
Postwar Europe
•Unstable New Democracies
•German Inflation
•Worldwide Unemployment
In response to political turmoil and economic crises,
Italy and Germany turn to totalitarian dictators.
FASCISM RISES IN EUROPE
Fascism Rises
• Fascism is a new, militant
political movement
• Emphasizes nationalism and
loyalty to authoritarian leader
• Italians want a leader who will
take action
• Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini,
promises to rescue Italy
• Italian king puts Mussolini in
charge
Comparing Fascism
to Communism
COMMUNISM
FASCISM
Ruled by:
DICTATOR
DICTATOR
Political Parties
ONE
ONE
Individual Rights
Denied
Denied
Societal Classes
None
-Classless society
Many
•Aristocrats
•Industrialist
•Military
•Lower middle class
•Workers
World View
Internationalism
-unite workers worldwide
National issues take
precedence
Fascism Rises
• Adolf Hitler—obscure political
figure in 1920s Germany
• Nazism—German brand of
fascism
1923 BEER HALL PUTSCH: Hitler
tries—but FAILS—to seize power
from the democratically elected, but
troubled, Weimar Government
MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle) : written
in jail, Hitler’s book outlines his plan
for a Nazi Germany
MEIN KAMPF
1.Superiority of German
(Aryan) race; all others inferior
2.Jews were the reason for all of
Germany’s problems (also
Communists)
Treaty of Versailles must be
overturned
Lebensraum: Germany
needed “Living Space” for its
people (and all lost land
returned
3.
4.
MEIN KAMPF
5. FURHER Principal: One leader
should have supreme power and
rule (Rousseau’s “General
Will”)
Results:
Bad economic conditions get Nazi
Party elected in growing #’s
1933 Ger. President appoints
Hitler Chancellor
Burning of Reichstag gives Nazis
majority in elections
1.The 17th century was a period
of great upheaval in Europe.
The decline of feudalism,
constant religious and
territorial conflicts, and
rebellions of overtaxed
peasants led monarchs to seek
absolute power.
*What political and social crises
led to the rise of fascism in the
1920s and 1930s?
1.Lack of Democratic tradition:
Weimar Government weak
2.Loss of population, houses,
factories, farms, schools,
hospitals, etc.
Loss of “next generation”
keeps “old ideas” in power
Inflation
Trade decreases
Personal and Social Anxiety
3.
4.
5.
6.
2. Rulers can increase their power by
limiting the power of other
institutions.
Absolute monarchs of the 1600’s
increased their power by limiting the
power of the nobility, controlling the
Church, creating royal bureaucracies
& taking personal control of the
central government.
How did Fascist leaders increase their
own power?
1.Majority control of GOV’T.
2.Allow only 1 PARTY
3. Change Laws: target Jews,
newspapers, teachers, political
opposition
Use of Terror: Assassinations,
Prison camps, Threats
Secret Police: SS, Gestapo
Weakened Cath/Prot. Church
Propaganda: massively used
4.
5.
6.
7.
3. Absolute monarchs sought to
control economic affairs by
giving tax benefits to expand
trade and manufacturing and by
creating new bureaucracies to
control economic life.
How did Fascist leaders take
command of their countries’
economies?
1.Took over labor unions and
outlawed strikes
2.Almost no unemployment:
public works, ramped up
military, opposition = no jobs
Nazis closely regulated
private industry
State control of prices,
production, capital
investments, trade, banking
3.
4.
4. In an effort to control every
aspect of society and the lives of
citizens, absolute monarchs
regulated religious worship,
social gatherings, and other
aspects of daily life.
What steps did Fascist leaders
take to control the lives of their
citizens?
1.Controlled education
2.Youth groups
3.Censorship
4.German women pushed into
inferior position
5.Controlled assembly, speech,
marriage, occupations, etc.
5. Absolute monarchs believed
that the divine right of kings
gave them authority to rule with
unlimited power.
What beliefs or principles did
Fascist leaders use to justify
their unlimited power?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries;
the rest of the world does nothing to stop them.
AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS
Aggressors March
•Britain urges appeasement, a
policy of giving in to aggression
•Germany, Italy, and Japan—the
Axis Powers— form an alliance
•United States Follows an
Isolationist Policy
•Isolationism—avoidance of
•
political ties with other
countries
In 1935, Congress passes
Neutrality Acts
Preserve Peace?
•Britain and France again choose
•
•
•
•
Appeasement, let Hitler take
Sudetenland
But in 1939, Hitler still takes
rest of Czechoslovakia
Mussolini takes Albania; Hitler
demands part of Poland
Nazis and Soviets Sign
Nonaggression Pact
In 1939, Stalin and Hitler pledge
never to attack one another
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