Acids 2018

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Tables K, L and M
Acids and Bases
MAVA = MBVB M1V1=M2V2
Electrolytes – substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water
 Salts
NaCl(s)  Na+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq)
 Acids
HCl(s)  H+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq)
 Bases
NaOH(s)  Na+1(aq) + OH-1(aq)
Acids:
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Arrhenius - H+ is ONLY positive (+) ion in solution
H+ is same as H3O+
Alternate theory – Donates a proton (H+)
Organic acids end in –COOH
Turn Litmus Red and Phenolphthalein Colorless
React with metals to produce H2(g)
Sour taste
HCl, H2SO4, CH3COOH, HNO3
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Bases:
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Salts:
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Arrhenius – OH- s ONLY negative (-) ion in solution
OH- MUST be IONICALLY bonded to a positive ion (NOT CH3OH)
Alternate theory – Accepts a proton (H+)
There are NO Organic Bases!!!!!!!
Turn Litmus Blue and Phenolphthalein Pink
Slippery, soapy, and caustic
NaOH, NH3, LiOH, Ca(OH)2
Ionically Bonded
Metal + Nonmetal
Ionize in H2O
NaCl, CaCl2, LiBr
Neutralization
 HCl(s) + NaOH(s)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq)
 Acid + Base
 Salt
+ Water
 Double Replacement Reaction
 Exothermic
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Table M
Indicators
Use reference table
Indicator only works for
the ranges listed
If pH falls between the
range it is a MIX of the
two colors
If pH is below the range it
will be color on left
If pH is above the range it
will be color on right
pH
Power of Hydrogen
Below 7 = acid
Above 7 = base
Each step is 10X more or less
o 2 steps = 100X
o 3 steps = 1000X
o Ex: pH 4-7 is 1000X
more BASIC!!!
[H+] = 1X 10-9 has a pH of 9
[OH-] = 1 X 10-9 had a pH of 5
Titration
 Molarity of an acid (or base) of unknown concentration can be determined by adding it to a measured
volume of base (or acid) until neutralization occurs
 MAVA = MBVB or M1V1=M2V2
 If more than 1 mol of acid or base use: MA VA (# of H+) = MB VB (# of OH-)
 End point – where neutralization occurs
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