Acids-Chemistry Regents Review

advertisement
Acids, Bases and Salts
Tables K, L and M
MAVA = MBVB M1V1=M2V2
Electrolytes – substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water
 Salts
NaCl(s)  Na+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq)
 Acids
HCl(s)  H+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq)
 Bases
NaOH(s)  Na+1(aq) + OH-1(aq)
Indicators


Use reference table
Indicator only works for
the ranges listed
If pH falls between the
range it is a MIX of the
two colors
If pH is below the range
it will be color on left
If pH is above the range
it will be color on right
Acids:








Arrhenius - H+ is ONLY positive (+) ion in solution
H+ is same as H3O+
Alternate theory – Donates a proton (H+)
Organic acids end in –COOH
Turn Litmus Red and Phenolphthalein Colorless
React with metals to produce H2(g)
Sour taste
HCl, H2SO4, CH3COOH, HNO3
Bases:







Arrhenius – OH- s ONLY negative (-) ion in solution
OH- MUST be IONICALLY bonded to a positive ion (NOT CH3OH)
Alternate theory – Accepts a proton (H+)
NO Organic Bases!!!!!!!
Turn Litmus Blue and Phenolphthalein Pink
Slippery, soapy, and caustic
PH
NaOH, NH3, LiOH, Ca(OH)2
Salts:




Ionically Bonded
Metal + Nonmetal
Ionize in H2O
NaCl, CaCl2, LiBr
Neutralization
 HCl(s) + NaOH(s)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq)
 Acid + Base
 Salt
+ Water
 Double Replacement Reaction
 Exothermic









Power of Hydrogen
Below 7 = acid
Above 7 = base
Each step is 10X more or less
o 2 steps = 100X
o 3 steps = 1000X
o Ex: pH 4-7 is 1000X
more BASIC!!!
+
[H ] = 1X 10-9 has a pH of 9
[OH-] = 1 X 10-9 had a pH of 5
Titration
 Molarity of an acid (or base) of unknown concentration can be determined by adding it
to a measured volume of base (or acid) until neutralization occurs
 MAVA = MBVB or M1V1=M2V2
 If more than 1 mol of acid or base use: MA VA (# of H+) = MB VB (# of OH-)
 End point – where neutralization occurs
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards