Central European Monarchs Clash ________________________

Central European Monarchs Clash
• _____________________ join forces with _________________________, and Catholics form
the ____________________________  leads to warfare
Bohemian Protestant Revolt
• Future HRE, _______________________, was the head of the Hapsburg family
• Catholics didn’t trust Ferdinand II because he was Catholic and begin to close
some of the Protestant churches. Some Protestants revolted, and Ferdinand
II sends in an army to put down the revolt
• This began the ___________________________, which was a conflict over religion
and territory: characterized by Hapsburg defeats and Hapsburg triumphs
Hapsburg Triumphs
• The war lasted from _________________________.
• During the first 12 years of the war, _________________________ crushed the
Protestant troops
• Ferdinand paid his army of 125,000 men which allowed them to stay loyal to
the Catholic cause
Hapsburg Defeats
• Protestant leader _____________________________________ of Sweden fielded an army
of 23,000 shifted the war in 1630.
• Driving the Hapsburg Catholics outside of Germany, Gustavas was killed in
1632. Cardinal ______________________ and Cardinal __________________ dominated
the remaining years of the war
Peace of Westphalia
• The war did great __________________ to Germany- population dropped from 2016 million
• __________________ and ________________________ were disrupted, and their
economies suffered for it  why Germany didn’t unify until 1800’s
• ___________________________________ ended the war (1648)
• The treaty had these ramifications:
1. Weakened Hapsburg states of ______________ and __________________
2. Strengthened France by awarding it German territory
3. Made German princes independent of _____________________________
4. Ended _________________________ in Europe
5. Introduced a new method of __________________________
Beginning of Modern States
• The treaty abandoned idea of Catholic Empire, and recognized Europe as a
group of ____________________________ nations. This was the most important
result of the war
States form in Central Europe
• Major powers of Central Europe were ______________, _________, and
Economic Contrasts with the West
• During the late middle ages, serfs moved from the manor to the towns and
rose to the middle class. In central Europe, the aristocracy passed laws
Several Weak Empires
 The landowning nobles in central Europe blocked the development of strong
kings. Ex) _________________________________________
 The two empires, Ottoman and HRE, were limited in power also due to their
inability to ________________________ and the ______________________________
 One family, the Hapsburgs, took steps to become absolute monarchs
 During the Thirty Years War, they captured ________________. Next, they
___________________________ and ________________________________. Lastly, the
Hapsburg reclaimed Hungary from the Ottoman Empire.
 In 1711, the Hapsburg ruler was Charles VI. He ruled over the Austrian,
Hungarian, and Bohemian empires.
Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne
• In order to ensure that Hapsburgs kept their rule over those lands,
___________________ persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement
allowing Charles VI’s daughter to be the heir to the throne.
_______________________ was his daughter, and she faced years of war with
Prussia once she took over
Prussia Challenges Austria
• The ________________________ family ruled Austria, and they were as ambitious
for power as the Hapsburgs
Rise of Prussia
• In 1640, a twenty years old a Hohenzollern (________________________) inherited
• The “________________________” created a standing army of 80,000 men, and
funded this force through permanent taxation
• The landowning nobility, _____________________, didn’t like the growing power of
the kings. To appease the Junkers, Frederick William
____________________________________________________which created a very loyal, very
organized military state.
Frederick the Great
• Frederick worried that his son, also _____________________, wasn’t military
minded enough to rule
• The son, Frederick, loved ______________________, _________, and _________________
• In 1730, the son and a friend attempt to run away. The father, Frederick,
orders his son to watch ____________________________________
• The son becomes known as Frederick the Great, and uses that memory to be
astern militaristic leader
• He does, however, allow _____________________________ and _________________________
War of the Austrian Succession
• In 1740, __________________________ succeeded her father (5 months after
Frederick II takes control of Prussia)
Frederick wanted __________________, which is a territory just outside of Prussia
He didn’t think Maria was strong enough to protect her land, and sent in
troops to occupy Silesia  this started the _______________________________ (1740)
• Maria Theresa seeks help from the ____________________ to aid the Austrians
against the French and Prussians.
• Although Maria Theresa stops Prussia’s aggression, Austria did lose Silesia in
the _____________________________________ (1748)
• Maria Theresa allied Austria with France and Russia while Prussia allied
themselves with Britain. Both Prussia and Austria switched allies, and for
the first time __________________ was involved in European conflict
• In 1756 Frederick attacked the Austrian ally of ___________________. This started
the Seven Years War, which did not change any territorial situations in
• The British emerged as the real victors of the Seven Years War, France lost its
American colonies, and Britain gained economic domination of India.  this
paved the way for British expansion