William III of Orange (1650-1702) Republic Mostly Protestant Calvinist Reformed Church- official church of the nation. Jews, Catholics, and Protestants lived in relative peace. Urban consolidation Transformed agriculture Extensive trade and finance Overseas commercial empire Fish industry Textile industry Shipbuilding Dutch East India Company Internal disunity Lacked a strong political leader Technology became outdated Fishing industry dropped Less advanced than western Europe. Agrarian economy Little trade Constant warfare and alliances King John III of Sobieski fought the Turks who were invading Vienna. No relation to actress Leelee Sobieski The central legislative body of Polish nobles Ineffective Each delegate had veto power and could call the body to disband. Effects? Austria, Hungary, Silesia, Galicia, Moravia, Bohemia Stopped Turkish advances into Europe. Stopped Louis XIV. Gained control of Mediterranean Succeeded Joseph I who had succeeded Leopold Habsburg emperor involved in the plot to overthrow Peter with the help of Aleksei. Charles VI- had no male heir. Pragmatic Sanctionprovided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance through Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa. There would be a single line of inheritance through the Habsburg family. (Maria Theresa) Empire was open to military threats w/ little money in the treasury or military. Many religions, many ethnicities. Charles VI died in 1740, leaving M.T. w/o a strong army or full treasury. Invaded by Frederick II of Prussia. Frederick William- The Great Elector Frederick I- “King of Prussia” Frederick William I- made Prussia a military powerhouse in Europe! Frederick the Great (II)- invaded Silesia, broke alliance w/ Habsburgs. Units of officially recognized religious communities. Complete your AP Test Prep found on pages 450-451.