Chapter 21 Section 3 Notes Central European
Monarchs Clash pg. 603-607
1. Define Thirty Years War [explain dates, players,
This was a conflict over religion and territory and
for power among European ruling families from
1618-1648. It started in the Czech Kingdom of
Bohemia were the ruling Holy Roman Emperor,
Ferdinand II, was not trusted by the Protestants in
the area. When he closed down some of their
churches, they started a revolt and had to face an
2. Name two causes of the war
Tension between Catholics and Lutherans
Destruction of Protestant churches
Ferdinand’s attempt to crush rebellion
3. Explain The Peace of Westphalia
Signed in 1648, this ended the Thirty Years War which had
devastated Germany’s population, economy, trade, and
4. Note five consequences of this treaty
 Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria
 Strengthened France by awarding it German territory
 Made German princes independent of the Holy Roman emperor
 Ended religious wars in Europe
 Introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of
war and decide the terms of peace
5. Explain two differences between the economic of western and
6. Explain all the reasons why the empires of Central Europe were weak.
central Europe
 Nobility hindered the development of strong kings, weakened
 Economy of Western Europe was commercial and capitalistic
by the Thirty Years War
while central Europe was feudal, dependent on serf labor,
and untouched by commercial revolution
7. Explain all the steps that Austria’s reigning
8. Describe who Maria Theresa was
9. Explain all the steps that Prussia’s reigning family, the
family, the Hapsburgs, took to becoming absolute
Hohenzollerns, took to becoming absolute monarchs.
She was the eldest daughter of Charles VI and he
 Created a strong standing army of 80,000+
 Thirty Years War
 Created a military state
had leaders of Europe sign an agreement that they
 Conquered Bohemia
 Bought the loyalty of the Junkers [Prussia’s
 Wiped out Protestantism
landowning nobility] by giving landowning nobility the
territories. During her reign, she decreased the
 Created a loyal Czech nobility
exclusive rights to be officers in the army
power of the nobility and limited the amount of
 Centralized government
Weakened representative assemblies
labor that nobles could force the peasants to do.,
 Created a standing army
 Took over Silesia
fought many wars
 Reconquered Hungary
 Introduced permanent taxation
10. Explain who Frederick the Great was
Fredrick II was son of King Frederick William I;
followed his father’s military policies though
overall more lenient; encouraged religious
tolerance and legal reforms, patron of the arts,
fought in the Seven Years War
11. What was the War of the Austrian Succession
War between Austria’s Maria Theresa and Prussia’s
Frederick II over Austrain land of Silesia which he
wanted because it bordered Prussia and produced a lot
12. In the Seven Years War: explain who the two teams of allies were
Maria Teresa- Austria and France and Russia
Frederick II-Prussia and Britain
13. Define the Seven Year’s War.
A conflict in Europe, North America, and India
lasting from 1756-1763 in which the forces of
Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France,
Russia and other countries
14. Explain was the outcome of the war.
 Did not change territorial situation in Europe
of raw materials; he sent an army in 1740 to occupy it
and later won control of the land.