Chapter 21 Section 3 Notes Central European Monarchs Clash pg. 603-607 1. Define Thirty Years War [explain dates, players, locations] This was a conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families from 1618-1648. It started in the Czech Kingdom of Bohemia were the ruling Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, was not trusted by the Protestants in the area. When he closed down some of their churches, they started a revolt and had to face an army. 2. Name two causes of the war Tension between Catholics and Lutherans Destruction of Protestant churches Ferdinand’s attempt to crush rebellion 3. Explain The Peace of Westphalia Signed in 1648, this ended the Thirty Years War which had devastated Germany’s population, economy, trade, and agriculture 4. Note five consequences of this treaty Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria Strengthened France by awarding it German territory Made German princes independent of the Holy Roman emperor Ended religious wars in Europe Introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of war and decide the terms of peace 5. Explain two differences between the economic of western and 6. Explain all the reasons why the empires of Central Europe were weak. central Europe Nobility hindered the development of strong kings, weakened Economy of Western Europe was commercial and capitalistic by the Thirty Years War while central Europe was feudal, dependent on serf labor, and untouched by commercial revolution 7. Explain all the steps that Austria’s reigning 8. Describe who Maria Theresa was 9. Explain all the steps that Prussia’s reigning family, the family, the Hapsburgs, took to becoming absolute Hohenzollerns, took to becoming absolute monarchs. monarchs. She was the eldest daughter of Charles VI and he Created a strong standing army of 80,000+ Thirty Years War Created a military state had leaders of Europe sign an agreement that they Conquered Bohemia Bought the loyalty of the Junkers [Prussia’s would recognize her as the heir to all his Hapsburg Wiped out Protestantism landowning nobility] by giving landowning nobility the territories. During her reign, she decreased the Created a loyal Czech nobility exclusive rights to be officers in the army power of the nobility and limited the amount of Centralized government Weakened representative assemblies labor that nobles could force the peasants to do., Created a standing army Took over Silesia fought many wars Reconquered Hungary Introduced permanent taxation Central Europe 10. Explain who Frederick the Great was Fredrick II was son of King Frederick William I; followed his father’s military policies though overall more lenient; encouraged religious tolerance and legal reforms, patron of the arts, fought in the Seven Years War 11. What was the War of the Austrian Succession War between Austria’s Maria Theresa and Prussia’s Frederick II over Austrain land of Silesia which he wanted because it bordered Prussia and produced a lot 12. In the Seven Years War: explain who the two teams of allies were Maria Teresa- Austria and France and Russia Frederick II-Prussia and Britain 13. Define the Seven Year’s War. A conflict in Europe, North America, and India lasting from 1756-1763 in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia and other countries 14. Explain was the outcome of the war. Did not change territorial situation in Europe of raw materials; he sent an army in 1740 to occupy it and later won control of the land.