Exam 2: Study Guide Chapter 5 Know: First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics What is entropy? What is potential energy? What is kinetic energy? What is ATP composed of? What is its functions and use in the cell? Coupled reaction? Explain the flow of energy (pathway) from the sun to useful energy (ATP) What are enzymes? What are their functions? How do enzyme inhibition work? Understand the metabolic pathway…if an enzyme is defective, what will happen to the reactants and products? What is passive transportation? Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis Know the effects of osmosis on plant and animal cells What is active transportation? Know the different types of bulk transport Chapter 6: Know the anatomy of the leaf and know what is contained and the process that occur in them. Mesophyll tissue Chloroplasts Stroma Thylakoid Granum What is oxidation? Reduction? What is photosynthesis? What are the end products? Describe the 2 sets of reactions…understand how the 2 reactions work together Light reactions Calvin cycle reaction: how many turn of the cycle to produce 1 G3P What is NADPH? Where can you find the ETC in the chloroplast? Understand the organization of the thylakoid membrane Hydrogen ions gradient Understand radiant energy The longer the wavelength, the lower the energy Know the order of the visible light spectrum from longest the shortest wavelength and the energy level from high to low Where are photosynthetic pigments found? Why are leaves green, orange, yellow, red? Know the different between C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis How are the leaf structures different between these plants? Why is there a need for different kinds of photosynthesis? Chapter 7: What is respiration? Oxidation or reduction? What is the purpose of respiration? Where does respiration take place? Know where the different phases take place Know the phases of respiration and it’s products How are these products used to get to the ultimate goal…ATP What is glycolysis? Where does it take place? What are the inputs and outputs? How many pyruvates are produced? What happens in the preparatory reaction? Where does it take place? What are the inputs and outputs? Citric Acid Cycle Where does it take place? How may turn of the cycle per glucose? What are the inputs and outputs? What are the purposes of NADH and FADH2? What is the electron transport chain (ETC)? What is it’s purpose? What go into the ETC and what are the end products? Keep track of the ATP, NADH, and FADH2 produced What is the total ATP yield per glucose? What other ways can you make ATP? What is the purpose of fermentation? (To recycle NAD+ to keep glycolysis going when oxygen is not available) What are the end products?