GenRespirationPhotosynthesis14

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Respiration
a Dr.
production
TedEd: How breathing works
• Respiration is
simply, using
oxygen to change
food into energy.
• ALL living things
undergo this
process
What GPS does this lesson support?
The formula for respiration is:
What is missing from these equations and where does it belong?
• Cellular energy is stored in a form called ATP
• ATP stands for adenosinetriphosphate
ATP is what kind of organic compound?
• ATP is a nucleotide.
That means it is a mono
mer (one part).
• Several nucleotides
linked together make a
nucleic acid. DNA &
RNA are nucleic acids
• ATP is formed by
dehydration synthesis
and broken by hydrolysis
ATP is composed of 3 things:
• The sugar ribose
• The base adenine
• 3 phosphate groups
These
phosphates are
the key to the
activity of ATP.
• Energy is stored by adding a
phosphate to ADP
• ADP + Pi  ATP
• Energy stored (endogonic /
endo thermic rxn)
• Energy is released by
breaking a phosphate off
ATP
• ATPADP + Pi
• Energy released
(Exogonic/exothermic rxn)
• Cells make ATP
in an organelle
called the
mitochondria
In eukaryotes, respiration occurs in 3 steps
1. Glyco lysis (sugar breaking)
2. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
3. Electron Transport Chain
• Glycolysis occurs in
the cytosol of the cell
and makes 2 ATP.
• Glycolysis starts with
the mono saccharide
(sugar) glucose
• And uses the
coenzyme NAD+
• The Kreb’s cycle or (Citric Acid Cycle)
occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
and makes 2ATP
• The electron
transport chain
occurs across the
inner membrane of
the mitochondria.
• It makes 34 ATP and
requires oxygen
• It only occurs in
eukaryotes
• Sometimes, under
an aerobic (lack of
oxygen)
conditions, like
strenuous exercise,
eukaryotes
undergo
fermentation
• This is called
lactic acid
fermentation.
• Fermentation does
NOT make energy
• It changes the
coenzyme
NADH+H+ back
to NAD+ for use
in glycolysis
• Prokaryotes do
not have
mitochondria or
ANY membrane
bound organelle.
• They carry out
respiration in the
cytosol
• Prokaryotes use the
fermentation
process to change
the coenzyme
NADH+H+ back to
NAD+
• Microorganism
fermentation
produces ethyl
alcohol and CO2
• Respiration is
the opposite of
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
a Dr.
production
EdTed; The simple story of
photosynthesis and food -
What is Photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is using light energy from the
sun to make sugar
Light E + CO2 + H2O  C6H12O6 + O2
Photo synthesis occurs in the chloroplasts
of auto trophs…
Inter
Light Reactions occur in the thylakoid
membrane of the chloroplast
Light reactions use light energy and water to
produce:
ATP
Hydrogen (NADPH)
Oxygen (as waste)
They utilize the pigments chlorophyll a and
chlorophyll b
Electromagnetic
spectrum of light
Other pigments of
photosynthesis
include
Other
chlorophylls,
xanthophylls,
carotenoids,
fucoxanthins,
anthocyanins,
tannins
The dark reactions are also called the
Calvin Cycle or Carbon Fixation
TEDEd:
Nature's
smallest
factory: The
Calvin cycle
Dark reactions occur in the stroma of the
chloroplasts
Plants use energy to store it in the form of a
sugar for later use
Chlorophyll
Carbon Fixation
Light-independent
Calvin Cycle
How do gasses get in
and out of plants?
• Opening and closing
of Stomata, 2
• Stomata and Gas
Exchange Animation
Stomata, which means "mouths" in Greek, do indeed resemble tiny mouths surrounded
by swollen lips. The "lips" are actually individual cells (called guard cells) that can
swell up even further to close off the stomata. But why would a plant want to close off
its stomata, effectively cutting it off from essential carbon dioxide?
How do stomatal adaptation give clues
about a plant’s environment?
How does Water Move through Plants?
A= Transpiration
B= Guard Cells
C= Capillary Action
D= Diffusion
E= Diffusion
F= Absorption
Why leaves change color in Autumn
• Maine's Autumn Magic: How Leaves Reveal Their Fall Colors
• BrainPop: Autumn Leaves
Name:
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Name:
Photosynthesis
•Makes ATP
•Uses ATP
•Uses CO2, light E, H2O •Part of Carbon cycle
& water cycle
•Uses coenzyme NADP
•Occur in membrane
•Releases O2 & Glucose bound organelles
•Occurs in chloroplast
•Occur in org. with
•Has 2 reactions light &
dark (Calvin C)
•Uses pigments:
chlorophyll, tannins,
anthocyanins,fucoxanthyns,
xanthophylls, carotenoids
double mem.
•Necessary for life on
earth
•Circulates products
•Uses O2 & glucose
•Produces CO2, E &
H2O
•Occurs in
mitochondria
•Has 3 reactions:
glycolysis, Kreb’s
cycle, E- transport
chain
•All living things do it
Respiration
Name:
Photosynthesis
•Uses light E & CO2 &
H2O
•Makes O2 & glucose
•Has 2 reactions, light &
dark (Calvin C)
•Does not occur in Fungi
•Occurs in autotrophs/
producers
•Uses NADPH
•Occurs in chloroplast
•Requires pigments:
chlorophyll, tannins,
anthocyanins, carotenoids,
xanthopyhlls
•Make & use ATP
•Make & use ADP
•Occur in cells
•Occur in mem. Bound
organelles
•Occur in double mem.
Organelles
•Both necessary for
cycle of life
•Both components of
the Carbon & Water
cycles
•Uses O2 & glucose
•Produces CO2 & H2O
& Energy
•Has 3 reactions,
glycolysis, Krebs Cycle
and E- chain
•Uses coenzyme NAD
•All living things do it
•Occurs in mitochondria
Respiration
•Make ATP
Photosynthesis
•Only happens in
autotrophs
•Produces oxygen &
glucose
Name:
•Use ATP
•Breaks glucose
•Used by plants
•All living things do it
•Codependant/
cycle
•Uses NAD/NADH
•Use enzymes
•Produces CO2 & H2O
•Has 3 reactions glycolysis,
•Absorbs light E
•Happen in mem. Krebs & E- transport
bound org.
•Fixes CO2
•Occurs in mitochondria
•Happen in org.
•Has 2 reactions light &
with double mem. •Requires oxygen
dark (Calvin C)
w/ DNA
•Does NOT require sunlight or
•Uses NADPH/NADP
•Both necessary pigments Respiration
•Requires chlorophyll/ for life on earth
carotenoids/ anthocyanin,
•Electron
fucoxanthins/ tannins,
transport chain
xanthophylls
cycles
Resources:
•
•
•
•
Newton’s Apple Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Videos
Interactive Animations in Biochemistry
Illuminating Photosynthesis Interactive
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