Implementation of energy accounts in Finland The 7th Oslo Group Meeting, Helsinki 25.10.2012

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Implementation of energy
accounts in Finland
The 7th Oslo Group Meeting, Helsinki
25.10.2012
Jonna Hakala
[email protected]
Background

Energy accounts were the first application of Natural resource
accounting compiled at Statistics Finland in late 1980s, on 1985
data

The application was updated in 1995, on 1990 data

Physical Energy Flow Accounts are one module of environmental
accounting regulation of the EU

The module is expected to come into force in 2015, and accounts
on years 2013-2015 have to be reported to Eurostat in December
2017

Project on energy accounts in Finland started in spring 2012
Jonna Hakala
25.10.2012
2
Objectives

Energy accounts compatible with other modules of physical and
monetary environmental accounts, such as

Air emission accounts

Economy-wide material flow accounts

Environmentally related taxes by economic activity

Compilation system of physical supply and use tables for energy
flows in Finland 2008-2011

Identification of elements of energy accounting calculation system
that could be integrated into planned production system of energy
statistics
Jonna Hakala
25.10.2012
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Risks

The biggest risk of the project is the availability and
quality of the data at detailed classification levels
required for product flows and branches of industry
(NACE A*64)

Especially the energy use of the service sector may be
problematic to disaggregate into such detailed level
Jonna Hakala
25.10.2012
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Organisation
Project group consists of experts on
 environmental accounts
 energy statistics
 air emission statistics and accounts
 monetary supply-use tables
 Units represented in the steering group
 Environment and Energy Statistics
 Greenhouse Gas Inventory
 National Accounts

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25.10.2012
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The main steps



Identification of data sources

Energy statistics, Energy balance

Data from monetary supply-use tables

Other data sources
Development of methodology and calculation system

Identification of links to production system of energy statistics

Testing the system of energy accounts with 2010 data

Improvements to calculation system
Supply-use tables 2008-2011
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Energy accounts

Physical Energy Flow Accounts (PEFA): Supply-use tables
including all energy forms and fuels

Basic structure adopted from the System of EnvironmentalEconomic Accounting (SEEA)
 Natural inputs, products, residuals; more than 100 items
 All branches of industry (NACE A*64), households,
accumulation, import and export, environment

Unit: Terajoule

The main differences with respect to energy statistics:

Branches of industry highly disaggregated, especially in
manufacturing industries and services

Residence principle as in National Accounts
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25.10.2012
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Flows in energy accounts

NATURAL INPUTS
(RESOURCE FLOWS, energy statistics
classification)

Non Renewables

Uranium and thorium ores

Anthracite

Coking coal

Other bituminous coal

Sub-bituminous coal

Lignite/Brown Coal

Peat

Crude oil

Natural gas liquids

Other hydrocarbons

Natural gas

Renewables

Hydro power

Wind power

Solar thermal (resource: solar radiation)

Solar PV (resource: solar radiation)

Tide, Wave and Ocean

Geothermal energy

Biomass for energy use


PRODUCTS (PRODUCT FLOWS, CPA
classification, 69 items)
 Other vegetal material and waste
 Wood
 Hard coal
 Lignite
 Peat
 Crude oil
 Black liquor
 …
 Motor gasoline, kerosene
 Electrical energy
 Biogas
 ...
 Municipal wastes (renewables)
 Municipal wastes (non-renewables)
 Industrial wastes
RESIDUALS (RESIDUAL FLOWS)
 Waste (without monetary value)
 Losses during extraction/abstraction
 Losses during distribution/transaction
 Losses during storage
 Dissipative heat
 ...
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25.10.2012
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Branches of industry in energy accounts
NACE code
A 01
A 02
B 05
CA 10
CA 11
CA 12
CB 13
CB 14
DA 15
DA 16
DB 17
DB 18
DC 19
DD 20
DE 21
DE 22
DF 23,1
DF 23,2
DF 23,3
DG 24
DH 25
DI 26
DJ 27.1-3
DJ 27,4
DJ 28
DK 29
DL 30
DL 31
DL 32
DL 33
DM 34
DM 35
Branch of industry
Agriculture, hunting and related service activities
Forestry, logging and related service activities
Fishing, fish farming and related service activities
Mining of coal and lignite; extraction of peat
Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas; service activities incidental to
oil and gas extraction excluding surveying
Mining of uranium and thorium ores
Mining of metal ores
Other mining and quarrying
Manufacture of food products and beverages
Manufacture of tobacco products
Manufacture of textiles
Manufacture of wearing apparel; dressing; dyeing of fur
Manufacture of leather and leather products
Manufacture of wood and wood products
Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products
Publishing, printing, reproduction of recorded media
Manufacture of coke oven products
Manufacture of refined petroleum products
Processing of nuclear fuel
Manufacture of chemicals, chemical products and man-made fibres
Manufacture of rubber and plastic products
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
Manufacture of basic ferrous metals
Manufacture of basic precious and non-ferrous metals
Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
Manufacture of office machinery and computers
Manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c.
Manufacture of radio, television and communication equipment and
apparatus
Manufacture of medical, precision and optical instruments, watches and
clocks
Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Manufacture of other transport equipment
NACE code
DN 36
DN 37
E 40,1
E 40,2
E 40,3
E 41
F 45
G 50
G 51
G 52
H 55
I 60,1
I 60,2
I 60,3
I 61,1
I 61,2
I 62
I 63
I 64
J 65-67
K 70-74
L 75
M 80
N 85
O 90
O 91
O 92
O 93
P 95
Q 99
Branch of industry
Manufacture of furniture; manufacturing n.e.c.
Recycling
Production and distribution of electricity
Manufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mains
Steam and hot water supply
Collection, purification and distribution of water
Construction
Sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; retail sale
of automotive fuel
Wholesale trade and commission trade, except of motor vehicles and
motorcycles
Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; repair of personal
and household goods
Hotels and restaurants
Transport via railways
Other land transport
Transport via pipelines
Sea and coastal water transport
Inland water transport
Air transport
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies
Post and telecommunications
Financial intermediation: total of energy taxes
Real estate, renting and business activities
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
Education
Health and social work
Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities
Activities of membership organization n.e.c.
Recreational, cultural and sporting activities
Other service activities
Activities of households as employers of domestic staff
Extra-territorial organizations and bodies
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Summary
Good starting points
 Clear target: physical input and output of energy by fuel/product
and by branch of industry
 Close co-operation between energy statisticians, environmental
accountants and national accountants
 Domestic demand of energy accounts connected to air emission
accounts, material flow accounts, environmental taxes and
monetary supply-use tables
 Challenges
 Very detailed level of product flows and branches of industry
(NACE A*64), especially on services
 Modelling and estimates needed for disaggregation and
residence principle -approach
 Data confidentiality of some branches and products

Jonna Hakala
25.10.2012
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