Study questions

Biology 1406 Test II Study Guide.
Chapter 5.. Cell membrane structure and function
Study questions
1. What are the main components of biological membranes?
2. What are the main properties that fats, proteins, and steroids give to a membrane?
3. What does it mean that a membrane is a fluid mosaid?
4. What parts of a phospholipids are hydrophilic and which ones are hydrophobic?
5. What are the main types of transport across a membrane?
6. What are examples that can cross a membrane by simple diffusion?
7. Define diffusion. How is facilitated diffusion different from diffusion?
8. Define osmosis
9. What is active transport?
10. What is a hypertonic solution?
11. What is a hypotonic solution?
12. In what type of solution would a red blood cell burst? In which one would a red
blood cell shrink?
13. What is endocytosis? What is exocytosis?
14. What is pinocytosis
15. what is phagocytosis?
16. What are types of specialized cell junctions and their functions?
17. What is the component of cell walls in plants?
Chapter 6.
18. What is energy?
19. What are the laws of Thermodynamics and what do they state?
20. What are enzymes?
21. What is the difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?
22. What does the term “coupled reactions” mean?
23. What is the universal biological molecule that stores energy? Where in the
molecule is the energy stored? What kind of biomolecules is it?
24. Give an example of an “electron carrier” molecule
25. Mention the main parts of an enzyme
26. How many ways do you know that an enzymatic activity can be
regulated/controlled/inhibited? What are they?
Chapter 7
27. What is photosynthesis?
28. Know the general formula for photosynthesis
29. In leaves, what is the name of the tissue where most photosynthesis takes place?
30. What is a pigment? Examples in plants. Where exactly are they located within the
31. What are the main products of the light-dependent reaction?
32. What are the main products of the light-independent reaction?
33. Which photosystem generates ATP? Which one NADPH?
34. What are NAD+ and NADP+?
35. What molecule provides with low energy electrons for photosynthesis?
36. What is chemiosmosis? Where does it take place?
37. What is the relationship between light-dependent and light-independent reactions?
38. What is photorespiration? What strategies have C3 and C4 plants developed to
avoid photorespiration?
Chapter 8:
1) What is the overall reaction of aerobic respiration?
2) What are the possible products of fermentation? Do they produce extra
ATP? How does Fermentation help ATP production?
3) Know the parts of the mitochondria; where do the processes of glycolysis,
fermentation, Krebs cycle, and Electron Transport chain take place.
4) What is the net ATP production of glycolysis?
5) What are the two stages of glycolysis?
6) In aerobic respiration, what is the final electron acceptor?
7) What is the function of NAD+ ?
8) In what part of the mitochondria do the H+ from NADH and FADH2 get
9) How many ATP’s are produced by the Electron Transport Chain?
10) Besides glucose, what other biomolecules can be used to produce ATP?