Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe

Chapter 8:
The Rise of
Section 1:
The Early Middle Ages
This was a time period for medieval civilization which is referring to
the Middle Ages in Europe or the period of history in between
ancient and modern times.
Europe is a frontier land which is a land sparsely populated,
undeveloped area on the outskirts of civilization and the land was
good for raising crops.
Germanic tribes migrated across Europe and made small kingdoms
in Europe, the most successful of those tribes were the Franks.
The Franks were ruled by Clovis who conquered the Roman province
Gaul and he also converted to Christianity because that was the
religion in Gaul which made him gain the respect of people and
made him a powerful ally in the Christian Church of Rome.
Islam appeared in Arabia in 622and from there on Muslim built a
great empire and created a new civilization.
Muslim armies expanded across the Mediterranean world after
700ad across North Africa, into Spain across the Straits of Gibralter.
Charles Martel leads an army of Christian Knights to victory over the
Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732ad.
Charles (768-814)
– son of Pepin
– will be known as Charlemagne (KAROLUS MAGNUS)
– reunites vast areas of the former Western Roman Empire
– most of France, Germany, Italy
– northern Spain
– capital Aachen-where there is a formal course of study school.
– 800ad journey to Rome
crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III
efficient government
 missi dominici
 Royal officials checked on local Rulers
– Nobles
 responsible for Justice, defense
– Uniform laws and judges
– promoted Christian Faith
 Parish
 rural district
 Tithe
 10% if income to the church
– education
 scholars brought to his capital
 established schools and libraries
– civil war on his death
 843ad Treaty of Verdun
 Charlemagne's empire is divided among his 3 grandsons
 Vikings
– Scandinavia
 shallow draft boats
 hit and run raids
– 911 settled in Normandy
 Magyars
– settle in Hungary
 Feudalism emerges
Section 2: Feudalism and the
Manor Economy
Feudal Society/Warfare
 Kings were powerless and weak
 Local nobles protected their own lands
– paid homage to the king
Kings and Lord exchanged rights and obligations
– based on the Feudal Contract
– land for service
King granted a FIEF (land)
vassal accepts FIEF in exchange for service
40 days fighting
service on Holidays
financial obligations
vassal may owe allegiance to more than one lord
 vassals often became more powerful than their king
 complex
– armor
– chain mail, battle axes, stirrup, lance
– undisciplined, free wheeling battles
 hostage taking common
– could withstand sieges for months or even years
 keep, crenellation, arrow loop
 code of conduct
– bravery, honesty, generosity
Manor Life
– Large estate ruled by a noble
– self sufficient
 tradesman
– blacksmith, miller, carpenter
 shepherds
– wool
– peasants
obligated to lord
attached to the land they worked on
not free
Section 3: The Medieval Church
The Church was the only institution whose power stretched across political
and geographical boundaries. In a time of dissolution and turmoil the
church was the glue that kept Medieval Europe together.
Church was an integral part of Medieval society
– educated clergy advised kings and lords
– owned huge tracts of land
– bishops, abbots could be vassals of a king
Church provided the Sacraments
– route to Salvation
– alternative was eternal suffering
– false teachings
– Excommunication
– Inquisition
best way to serve God was dedicate your life
– groups who dedicated themselves to serve the Church
Monks, nuns
– St. Benedict
 Monte Cassino
 discipline, rules he also created the Benedictine Rule which regulated
monastic life
– St. Francis of Asissi
 dedicated life to poverty and service
 survived on Charity
– St. Dominic (Spain)
 teachers
A force for civilization
preserved writing through the Dark Ages by copying and illuminating manuscripts
Cannon law-a body of laws developed by the medieval Church which applied to
the religious teachings, the clergy, marriages, and morals.
The Church presented women as “daughters of Eve,” weak and easily led to sin
and the Church offered a view of the ideal women, as modest and pure as Mary,
the mother of Jesus.
Section 4: Economic Expansion &
New Technologies- iron plows, new harness, and a windmill.
Feudal Lords made peasants clear forests, drain swamps, and
reclaim wasteland for farming and grazing.
Three Field System
one field left fallow, rotates every year
– reduced risk of starvation
– improved diet
The High Middle Ages
Revival of Trade
– Towns
 products
– wool, honey, furs
– Chartered
 written document explaining their rights and obligations
– paid taxes to the Lord
valuable to the Lord as a source of money
middle class grew
Guilds controlled the trades in their towns
 apprentice
 journeyman
 master craftsman
– masterpiece
Italian cities began trading with Crusaders and the East
Trade Fairs
– elaborate events
Hanseatic League
– Baltic cities banding together in a trade alliance
Capital- money for investment, spurred the growth of banking
Tenant Farmers- someone who would pay rent to a lord in order to
farm the land.
Guilds- and association of merchants and artisans.
Regents Questions
The Middle Ages in Western Europe was characterized by
1. the manor system and the importance of land ownership
2. absolute monarchies and strong central governments
3. decreased emphasis on religion in daily life
4. extensive trade with Asia and the Middle East
Feudal societies are generally characterized by
1. an emphasis on social order
2. a representative government
3. many economic opportunities
4. the protection of political rights
The art, music, and philosophy of the medieval period in Europe generally dealt with
1. human scientific achievements
2. religious themes
3. materialism
4. classic Greek and Roman subjects
In Europe during the Middle Ages, the force that provided unification and stability was the
1. central government in Rome
2. military alliance between France and Germany
3. federation of the craft guilds
4. Roman Catholic Church
Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to feudalism in Japan in that
Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to feudalism in Japan in that
1. power was based on class relationships
2. equality among the social classes
3. direct democracy
4. monotheism