Lect 2 Neolithic Revolution

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Gender Differences among Hunter-

Gatherers

Sexual division of labor, but complementary roles

Mother-goddess figures

Analyzing Secondary Sources

• Argument (main idea)

• Interpretation (what the historian says the evidence means)

• Evidence

– Specific

– “Factual”, something that can be verified

– Supports interpretation

– Source is identified (cited)

Neolithic Revolution

I. Causes & Effects of Neolithic Revolution

II. Locations & Spread

III. Consequences of Agriculture

IDs: Göbekli Tepe, pastoralism, Catal Huyuk,

Fertile Crescent

Lecture Argument

The most important effects of the Neolithic

Revolution were greater surpluses of food, population growth, settlement in villages, and more patriarchy.

I. Causes & Effects of Neolithic Revolution (circa

7000 BCE)

A. Definition of Neolithic Revolution or

Agricultural Rev. (first of many)

1. invention of agriculture

2. domestication of animals

B. Causes

1. Food shortage for hunter-gatherers

2. Climate change with end of Ice Age (c. 8000

BCE)

3. Observation & experimentation

Plants – women

Animals – men

4. Religion?

Göbekli Tepe (Turkey): 10,000 BCE

Göbekli Tepe (red)

C. Effects

1. Population Increase

2. Settlement in villages

• Houses

• bread

• beer

• ovens

• pottery

• textiles???

• wheel

• plow

3. Other inventions

4. Two new lifestyles (economic forms)

Agricultural (farming, villages)

Pastoral

Herding

Horses

Nomadic

Pastoralism – Steppe

II. Locations & Spread

A. Neolithic Rev. happened at different times in different places

Strong Maybes

• South America 6000

BCE

• Africa (Sahel) 2000

BCE

B. Neolithic Rev. spread outward from initial location

• Southwest

Asia

• Fertile

Crescent

(green)

• Zagros

Mountains

(red)

III. Consequences of Agriculture

A. surplus of food  population growth & parttime specialization

2. More work

3. Villages

Göbekli Tepe (red)

Catal Huyuk

(purple)

Anatolia (Asia

Minor)

4. Land Ownership

Catal Huyuk

5. Growth of Patriarchy

• Plowing

• Men control animals, food surplus, and land

• Women’s work undervalued

6. New stage in Human Development

Hunter-gatherer

Agriculture / Pastoralism

Next: Cities (civilization)

Lecture Argument

The most important effects of the Neolithic

Revolution were greater surpluses of food, population growth, settlement in villages and more patriarchy.

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