Introduction to Rise of China Orville Schell Colorado Seminar Notes

Introduction to Rise of China
Orville Schell
Colorado Seminar Notes
China became communist
in 1949
Mao Zedong in
1949, famously
declared, “Ours will
no longer be a
nation subject to
insult and
We…have stood
Mao’s Communist
1940s & 50s
• Heart and soul of the
revolution was antiimperialism- anti- west,
America and Japanese.
• Cultural Revolution- down
with America!
• Isolated China!
Mao’s China
• Communist revolutionenemies again, U.S. citizens
can’t go to mainland China.
Basic Idea of Communist China!
Equality for all!
• Everyone is assigned a job.
• Childcare, education, all the
basic services are provided
by the government.
• No ownership of business,
the government owns
• People’s Basic needs are
taken care of!
Everyone works to make China
Great Leap Forward- Propaganda Poster
In reality, the Great Leap Forward was a disaster.
Millions died of starvation and the idea of
collective farming failed.
Cultural Revolution
Mao’s final attempt for control and to revolutionize China was also a
disaster. Lost Generation- closed universities and schools. China’s
economy was on the brink of collapse, and China had not modernized.
Communist- State Owned Economic
policies did not work!
Communist economically!
• Government controls all the
• Isolated from world, no
trade with outside world
• No modernity, cars,
infrastructure etc.
• Total Propaganda
supporting Mao’s Great
Leap Forward & Cultural
One social class
• No Middle Class
• No Rich
• Everyone is equal- one
social class.
• Mao Zedong’s ideas almost
ruined China’s economy!!
What changes after Mao dies?
Mao Zedong Mausoleum at
Tiananmen Square
Deng Xiaoping
What Deng had the
intelligence to see was
that China would have
to break out of its
Maoist mold of state
The entrepreneurial
spirit had to be
encouraged, and that
the capitalist nature of
some had to be
openly accepted.
• .
Deng’s Quotes
It doesn't matter if
a cat is black or
white, so long as it
catches mice.
Reform is China's
second revolution.
To get rich is
His theories would have been considered an abomination in Mao’s time His theories would have been considered an abomination in Mao’s time
Deng in America
•1980’s Deng
comes to
with the U.S.
•visits Jimmy
trade and open
Special Economic Zones
• In 1978 Deng started an
ambitious program of
economic reform.
• He ended collective
farming, which freed
farmers to choose what
crops to grow and to sell
any surplus for profit.
• Deng encouraged foreign
trade and investment
through joint ventures.
• Chinese to open their
own business-capitalism!
Shanghai- SEZ!
Shenzhen, in Guangdong
Results of Economic reform!
• In last 25 years, China has moved 300 million
people out of poverty & quadrupled the
average person’s income
• Exports to the U.S. increased by 1600% in past
15 years.
• China is considered to be the “Workshop of
the World”!
• The rapid economic progress has transformed
cities and coastal areas.
Economic development
• China consumes more steel, coal, meat and grain
than any other nation.
• It is also the world's fifth largest exporter, trading
extensively with the EU, Japan and the US. In
2006, 80% of the world's consumer electronics
were made in China.
• But for those in China's underdeveloped rural
interior life remains difficult. The gap between
rich and poor in China is one of the biggest in the
China Seminar
Boulder, Colorado 2010
David Lampton
John Hopkins University
Version 2
Are American days behind
• Is China the world’s next
• Power is moving from the U.S. to
Asia- China.
National Intelligence Report of 2008
(16 agencies agreed)
• The U.S. will be less dominant, but
not necessarily in a decline.
• China sees the U.S on the decline,
although less drastic than in Russia
and our allies.
Why is China considered to be the next
World power?
• In last 3 decades, China
has moved 300 million
people out of poverty &
quadrupled the average
person’s income
• Exports to the U.S.
increased by 1600% in
past 15 years.
• China is considered to
be the “Workshop of
the World”!
China is world power but
does not want…..
• China does not want to be “
world leaders” or “police of
the world.”
• They want to be recognized as
a powerful country & are very
proud of their
• They want to continue their
own economic growth and
development of their country!!
Powerful just like the United States!
• Nuclear Power
• Permanent Member of
Security Council & Veto
Second Largest economy in the World!
World’s largest army & largest pop- 1.3
Largest army but still spends less then
U.S. on military
China’s government says
they want a “Peaceful
• Will China use it’s power in a
way that is constructive
towards U.S., good chance but
not guaranteed.
• The U.S. national policy
towards China will help to
create either a positive or
negative environment.
• U.S. can influence China’s rise
but not control it.
• China has a present strategy
that many say the U.S can learn
Brain/Intellectual Power
Intellectual Power
• Education
• Chinese are sending more students to the west for
• In 1978 the education was at the level of Cambodia
• Chinese government has quadrupled education (for
higher education); many new universities cities have
been developed in just 1 decade.
• The government has doubled the % of the GDP in
research and development
Intellectual Power!
• Chinese government is using its money to invest
in intelligent ways- infrastructure over military.
• Major investments in railroad systems, luxurious
train system. Investment in roads, and all other
forms of transportation.
• GDP- China’s debt is very low about 15% of GDP,
the U.S. is much higher, 89-90% of debt.
• Major investments in Green Technology!!
China’s High Speed Train
Major modernization and economic
growth has led to many problems in
Censorship of media & speech
Human Rights abuses by government
Industrial waste of the world!
• China is making
everything for the
world- industrial world.
• We outsourced all our
jobs and outsourced all
the pollution too!
• They get the blame but
they are suffering from
pollution on their own
Top leaders in China are all engineers!
Politburo Standing Committee, China’s most powerful body in
Chinese Leaders have continued ….
President-Hu Jintao- 2004
New President- Xi Jinping, slogan
The China Dream- 2013
Internet in China =
political expression
• 1997 Internet started in China,
by 2008 most internet users in
the world!
• Internet has created active
citizenship participation-blogs,
chat rooms- social mobilization
• Internet is filtered, censored.
• Facebook, social media is more
difficult to censor and control.
Freedom of Expression?
• Liu Xiaobo-Charter O8- calls
for political reform.
• manifesto which advocates
the gradual shifting in the
direction of democracy.
• Arrested in 2008, for 11
year sentence.
• award the Nobel Peace
Prize for 2010 (in jail
couldn’t attend)
Religion in China
Religion is still officially illegal, but is tolerated today as long as not a threat to
Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Falun Gong (religion)- 1999 CCP banned religion & began national crackdown