China’s Transformation From Mao to Now Chinese “Civil War” • Fighting between the Chinese Nationalists (democracy “Guomindang”) and the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) from 1927-1949; ended with the Communists victory & the birth of the “People’s Republic of China.” Although a constitution was written (permitting free elections & other democratic rights) in reality Mao created a totalitarian state. Mao’s leadership… • Mao ran propaganda campaigns to turn himself into a popular hero. Children & adults were taught that he had all the answers to China’s many problems. His book “Quotations from Chairman Mao” (“Little Red Book”) was required reading in all households & along with the Army it helped him to gain total control. • Propaganda – the spread of ideas to promote or damage a cause. • Economic reform was his first focus… Great Leap Forward-1958 • Goal – modernization in one step • 23,500 communes, each averaging 5,000 households, or 22,000 people • Each commune (self-supporting community for agriculture, small-scale local industry, schooling, marketing, administration, and local security) included several villages & had communal kitchens, mess halls, sleeping quarters (segregated) and nurseries. The commune controlled the land & the lives of the people living there. Great Leap Forward-Results • Economic failure • Food shortages (in which natural disasters also played a part); shortages of raw materials for industry; overproduction of poor-quality goods; deterioration of industrial plants through Mismanagement/exhaustion/demoralization of the peasants & the intellectuals, along with the party and government • 20,000,000 died! Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 • Purpose: Communist “spin” – to renew the spirit of the Chinese revolution • Russian revolution made Mao fear that China would follow the same path • massive mobilization of the country's urban youths organized into groups called the Red Guard • Had 4 goals Cultural Rev.- 4 Goals • 1)to replace old leaders with those more faithful to his current thinking (esp. those critical of GL Forward) • 2)to root out supporters of Capitalism; • 3)to provide Chinese youths with a revolutionary experience (“Red Guards”); • 4)and to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist. Cultural Revolution Results • Results: Created chaos in China. Schools & factories closed; the economy was less productive. • Left deep wounds – many were tortured, imprisoned or killed. Millions failed to receive an education; many lost faith in Mao & his programs. • Mao dies in 1976 failing to move China forward economically. Deng Xiaoping 1977-1997 • LEADS CHINA AFTER MAO: “4 Modernizations” – Agricultural – RESPONSIBILTY SYSTEM each family makes quota for the gov’t and sell extra for profit; – Industry: allowed special ec. Zones “SEZ” in southern China, increased foreign investment, shift to cities; – Science & technology: allowed Chinese students to study abroad; – ONE CHILD POLICY – implemented in 1979 to slow growth rate; enforced w/fines & rewards. LIFE UNDER Deng: • China trading in world economy – accepted as member of WTO; many see improvement in their way of life due to economic reforms. • 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre – 1000s of students protest Deng’s repressive gov’t – want democracy- gathered in largest square in world for weeks- CNN international coveragecommunism falls in Eastern Europe – China’s military opened fire on protesters – China received severe international criticism Modern China… • The current President is Xi Jinping (since 2012), who also holds the positions of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military; • One Child Policy: China's top legislature has formally adopted a resolution easing the country's one-child policy allowing couples to have two children if either parent is an only child. The policy has become increasingly unpopular and leaders fear the country's ageing population will both reduce the labor pool and exacerbate elderly care issues. • By 2050, more than a quarter of the population will be over 65. Modern China… • Strengths: total literacy rate of the population is 92.2 percent, with the male population literate at 96 percent, and the female population literate at 88.5 percent ; Its unemployment rate is 4.30 percent, which is lower than the U.S’ unemployment rate of 7.9 percent ; China’s industrial growth rate is 11 percent. China’s growth rate has been in the higher double digits, but the Asian Development Bank’s chief economist says, “Growth is slowing down much more rapidly than expected.” • WEAKNESSES: China’s political situation is in inevitable transition due to the social pressures and influences from Western nations. China’s current form of Communism (with Capitalism mixed in) heavily restricts self-expression of its citizens; an extremely large wealth and development gap exists between urban and rural areas. Media is strictly regulated, and protest against the government is strictly limited. WRAPPING UP POLITICAL CHINA… • “While China currently has one of the world’s leading economies, without a fundamental political change from its restrictive communism to more liberal democracy, China is limiting its capabilities, and will not be able to reach its full potential or power.” • AGREE/DISAGREE? Why? Status of Tibet • Once an • Tibetans have independent struggled for Buddhist autonomy or “theocracy” headed independence ever by the Dalai Lama, since but the China invaded in Chinese refuse to 1959 & has give up their occupied Tibet control. since then. Status of Hong Kong… • Lost to the British under the terms of the Treaty of Nanjing back in the mid 1800’s China regained control of Hong Kong in 1999 & it was a thriving capitalist refuge for wealthy Chinese & foreign industrialists. The gov. promised to leave it alone for 50 years! • Currently Hong Kong is a “Special Administrative Region (SAR) & is governed differently than the rest of China with more economic & personal freedom. Hong Kong’s thriving economy is the basis of the country’s spectacular economic growth since 2000. SE Asia’s Global Political Impact • Within the region competition & cooperation are balanced alongside conflict & contention, which involves nations outside the region as well. Points of conflict include: • North/South Korea tension ; • N. Korea’s nuclear program • China’s occupation of Tibet; • China’s threats against Taiwan; • China’s human rights abuses vs. its goal to be a regional & global super power.