China's Transformation - North Penn School District

China’s Transformation
From Mao to Now
Chinese “Civil War”
• Fighting between the Chinese Nationalists
(democracy “Guomindang”) and the CCP
(Chinese Communist Party) from 1927-1949;
ended with the Communists victory & the
birth of the “People’s Republic of China.”
Although a constitution was written
(permitting free elections & other democratic
rights) in reality Mao created a totalitarian
Mao’s leadership…
• Mao ran propaganda campaigns to turn
himself into a popular hero. Children &
adults were taught that he had all the
answers to China’s many problems. His
book “Quotations from Chairman Mao”
(“Little Red Book”) was required reading in
all households & along with the Army it
helped him to gain total control.
• Propaganda – the spread of ideas to promote
or damage a cause.
• Economic reform was his first focus…
Great Leap Forward-1958
• Goal – modernization in one step
• 23,500 communes, each averaging 5,000
households, or 22,000 people
• Each commune (self-supporting community
for agriculture, small-scale local industry,
schooling, marketing, administration, and
local security) included several villages &
had communal kitchens, mess halls,
sleeping quarters (segregated) and
nurseries. The commune controlled the land
& the lives of the people living there.
Great Leap Forward-Results
• Economic failure
• Food shortages (in which natural disasters
also played a part); shortages of raw
materials for industry; overproduction of
poor-quality goods; deterioration of
industrial plants through
of the peasants & the intellectuals, along
with the party and government
• 20,000,000 died!
Cultural Revolution 1966-1976
• Purpose: Communist “spin” – to renew
the spirit of the Chinese revolution
• Russian revolution made Mao fear that
China would follow the same path
• massive mobilization of the country's
urban youths organized into groups
called the Red Guard
• Had 4 goals
Cultural Rev.- 4 Goals
• 1)to replace old leaders with those
more faithful to his current thinking
(esp. those critical of GL Forward)
• 2)to root out supporters of Capitalism;
• 3)to provide Chinese youths with a
revolutionary experience (“Red
• 4)and to make the educational, health
care, and cultural systems less elitist.
Cultural Revolution Results
• Results: Created chaos in China.
Schools & factories closed; the
economy was less productive.
• Left deep wounds – many were
tortured, imprisoned or killed. Millions
failed to receive an education; many
lost faith in Mao & his programs.
• Mao dies in 1976 failing to move China
forward economically.
Deng Xiaoping 1977-1997
“4 Modernizations”
each family makes quota for the gov’t and
sell extra for profit;
– Industry: allowed special ec. Zones “SEZ”
in southern China, increased foreign
investment, shift to cities;
– Science & technology: allowed Chinese
students to study abroad;
– ONE CHILD POLICY – implemented in 1979
to slow growth rate; enforced w/fines &
• China trading in world economy –
accepted as member of WTO; many see
improvement in their way of life due to economic
• 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre
– 1000s of students protest Deng’s repressive gov’t
– want democracy- gathered in largest square in
world for weeks- CNN international coveragecommunism falls in Eastern Europe
– China’s military opened fire on protesters
– China received severe international criticism
Modern China…
• The current President is Xi Jinping (since
2012), who also holds the positions of
General Secretary of the Communist Party
of China and Chairman of the Central
• One Child Policy: China's top legislature has
formally adopted a resolution easing the country's
one-child policy allowing couples to have two
children if either parent is an only child. The policy
has become increasingly unpopular and leaders fear
the country's ageing population will both reduce the
labor pool and exacerbate elderly care issues.
• By 2050, more than a quarter of the population will be
over 65.
Modern China…
• Strengths:
total literacy rate of the population
is 92.2 percent, with the male population literate at 96
percent, and the female population literate at 88.5
percent ; Its unemployment rate is 4.30 percent,
which is lower than the U.S’ unemployment rate of
7.9 percent ; China’s industrial growth rate is 11
percent. China’s growth rate has been in the higher
double digits, but the Asian Development Bank’s
chief economist says, “Growth is slowing down
much more rapidly than expected.”
WEAKNESSES: China’s political situation is in inevitable
transition due to the social pressures and influences from
Western nations. China’s current form of Communism (with
Capitalism mixed in) heavily restricts self-expression of its
citizens; an extremely large wealth and development gap
exists between urban and rural areas. Media is strictly
regulated, and protest against the government is strictly
• “While China currently has one
of the world’s leading
economies, without a
fundamental political change
from its restrictive communism
to more liberal democracy, China
is limiting its capabilities, and
will not be able to reach its full
potential or power.”
Status of Tibet
• Once an
• Tibetans have
struggled for
autonomy or
“theocracy” headed
independence ever
by the Dalai Lama,
since but the
China invaded in
Chinese refuse to
1959 & has
give up their
occupied Tibet
since then.
Status of Hong Kong…
• Lost to the British under
the terms of the Treaty of
Nanjing back in the mid
1800’s China regained
control of Hong Kong in
1999 & it was a thriving
capitalist refuge for
wealthy Chinese &
foreign industrialists. The
gov. promised to leave it
alone for 50 years!
• Currently Hong Kong is a
“Special Administrative
Region (SAR) & is
governed differently than
the rest of China with
more economic &
personal freedom. Hong
Kong’s thriving economy
is the basis of the
country’s spectacular
economic growth since
SE Asia’s Global Political Impact
• Within the region
competition &
cooperation are
balanced alongside
conflict &
contention, which
involves nations
outside the region
as well.
Points of conflict include:
• North/South Korea
tension ;
• N. Korea’s nuclear
• China’s occupation of
• China’s threats against
• China’s human rights
abuses vs. its goal to be
a regional & global super