China Seminar Boulder, Colorado 2010 David Lampton John Hopkins University Version 2 1976-Death of Mao Zedong Mao’s Mausoleum in Beijing, China. Gang of Four Gang of Four were arrested in 1976 The so-called Gang of Four is led by Chairman Mao's widow Jian Qing, and includes Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, and Zhang Chunqiao. Mao Zedong Policies failed! China was economically and politically weak and crippled after the rule of Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong died in 1976 and the Chinese communist party chose a new leader-Deng Xiaoping To Get Rich is Glorious! Deng stresses Economic Reforms Individuals should be allowed to open their own business. Private enterprises reappeared Chinese could own their own land or open a business for profit Schools would reopen. Opens the door to the west How did Deng reform China’s Economic System? Deng Xiaoping Capitalism in China? Deng established Special Economic Zones. Special Economic Zones? Areas of rapid economic growth by using tax & business incentives to attract foreign investment & technology. Special tax breaks for investments- including foreign investments- McDonalds, General Motors and many others companies in China today. Free markets- people can open business not just the government. 1980- -1984- focus on Fujian & Guangdong Provinces. Shenzhen one of the first Special Economic Zones Click on title to go to video clip Deng open’s relations with the west! American & Foreign business in China. Why is China considered to be the next World power? In last 3 decades, China has moved 300 million people out of poverty & quadrupled the average person’s income Exports to the U.S. increased by 1600% in past 15 years. China is considered to be the “Workshop of the World”! Second Largest economy in the World! Industrial waste of the world! China is making everything for the world. We outsourced many of our jobs and outsourced all the pollution too! They get the blame but they are suffering from pollution on their own population! Results of China’s shift to economic power 30 years of successful growth which is predicted to continue for the next 20 years! An average of 7-9% growth rate annually! Communist Party has used Brain/Intellectual Power Intellectual Power Education Chinese are sending more students to the west for training. In 1978 the education was at the level of Cambodia Chinese government has quadrupled education (for higher education); many new universities cities have been developed in just 1 decade. The government has doubled the % of the GDP in research and development Infrastructure Intellectual Power! Infrastructure Chinese government is using its money to invest in intelligent ways- infrastructure over military. Major investments in railroad systems, luxurious train system. Investment in roads, and all other forms of transportation. GDP- China’s debt is very low about 15% of GDP, the U.S. is much higher, 89-90% of debt. Major investments in Green Technology!! China’s High Speed Train Deng & Tiananmen Square 1989 Tiananmen Square Protestcall for democratic change. Although Deng allowed for economic reform, when calls for democratic reform began, the communist party responded with their military. Chinese Premier-Hu Jintao- 2004 Harmonious Society The State will do more for society, more social programs In return, people should trust & support the govern. Revitalization of philosophies & religions Continues economic policies of Deng Xiaoping. Top leaders in China are all engineers! Hong Kong & Taiwan? 1997- Hong Kong (controlled by British after Opium War) was returned to China. The Communist Party (CCP) allows Hong Kong to continue with same economic polices as they did under rule of British. Today Taiwanese have called for independence, but China still claims as part of China! There is still tension between China & Taiwan. Former British Colony- China Today! Politically Communist/one party rule Economically Capitalist 1997 Internet starts in China, by 2008 most internet users in the world! Internet has created active citizenship participation-blogs, chat rooms- social mobilization Internet is filtered, censored by the CCP. Internet in China = political expression One Child Policy? CCP faced a overpopulation problem in China. 1978- Married, urban families are restricted to 1 child. Approximately 36% of population are affected by law. Hong Kong & rural villagers, non-Han ethnicities are excluded from this law. Freedom of Expression? Sometimes? Liu Xiaobo-Charter O8- calls for political reform. Religion is still officially illegal, but is tolerated today as long as not a threat to CCP! Falun Gong (religion)- 1999 CCP banned religion & began national crackdown.