China Seminar Boulder, Colorado 2010 David Lampton John Hopkins University

China Seminar
Boulder, Colorado 2010
David Lampton
John Hopkins University
Version 2
1976-Death of Mao
Mao’s Mausoleum in Beijing,
Gang of Four
Gang of Four were arrested in
The so-called Gang of Four is led
by Chairman Mao's widow Jian
Qing, and includes Wang
Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, and
Zhang Chunqiao.
Mao Zedong
Policies failed!
China was economically
and politically weak and
crippled after the rule of
Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong died in 1976
and the Chinese
communist party chose a
new leader-Deng Xiaoping
To Get Rich is
Deng stresses Economic
Individuals should be allowed to
open their own business.
Private enterprises reappeared
Chinese could own their own
land or open a business for profit
Schools would reopen.
Opens the door to the west
How did Deng reform
China’s Economic System?
Deng Xiaoping
Capitalism in China?
Deng established Special
Economic Zones.
Special Economic Zones?
Areas of rapid economic growth by using tax &
business incentives to attract foreign investment &
Special tax breaks for investments- including foreign
investments- McDonalds, General Motors and many
others companies in China today.
Free markets- people can open business not just the
1980- -1984- focus on Fujian & Guangdong
Shenzhen one of the first
Special Economic Zones
Click on title to go to video clip
Deng open’s relations with
the west!
American & Foreign
business in China.
Why is China considered to
be the next World power?
In last 3 decades, China has
moved 300 million people out of
poverty & quadrupled the
average person’s income
Exports to the U.S. increased by
1600% in past 15 years.
China is considered to be the
“Workshop of the World”!
Second Largest economy in
the World!
Industrial waste of the
China is making everything for
the world.
We outsourced many of our jobs
and outsourced all the pollution
They get the blame but they are
suffering from pollution on their
own population!
Results of China’s shift to
economic power
30 years of successful growth
which is predicted to continue
for the next 20 years!
An average of 7-9% growth rate
Communist Party has used
Brain/Intellectual Power
Intellectual Power
Chinese are sending more students to the west for training.
In 1978 the education was at the level of Cambodia
Chinese government has quadrupled education (for higher
education); many new universities cities have been developed
in just 1 decade.
The government has doubled the % of the GDP in research
and development
Intellectual Power!
Chinese government is using its money to invest in
intelligent ways- infrastructure over military.
Major investments in railroad systems, luxurious
train system. Investment in roads, and all other
forms of transportation.
GDP- China’s debt is very low about 15% of GDP,
the U.S. is much higher, 89-90% of debt.
Major investments in Green Technology!!
China’s High Speed Train
Deng & Tiananmen
1989 Tiananmen Square Protestcall for democratic change.
Although Deng allowed for
economic reform, when calls for
democratic reform began, the
communist party responded with
their military.
Chinese Premier-Hu
Jintao- 2004
Harmonious Society
The State will do more for
society, more social programs
In return, people should trust &
support the govern.
Revitalization of philosophies &
Continues economic policies of
Deng Xiaoping.
Top leaders in China are all
Hong Kong & Taiwan?
1997- Hong Kong (controlled by
British after Opium War) was
returned to China.
The Communist Party (CCP)
allows Hong Kong to continue
with same economic polices as
they did under rule of British.
Today Taiwanese have called for
independence, but China still
claims as part of China!
There is still tension between
China & Taiwan.
Former British Colony-
China Today!
Communist/one party
1997 Internet starts
in China, by 2008
most internet users
in the world!
Internet has created
active citizenship
chat rooms- social
Internet is filtered,
censored by the
Internet in China =
political expression
One Child Policy?
CCP faced a overpopulation
problem in China.
1978- Married, urban families
are restricted to 1 child.
Approximately 36% of
population are affected by law.
Hong Kong & rural villagers,
non-Han ethnicities are excluded
from this law.
Freedom of Expression?
 Liu
Xiaobo-Charter O8- calls for political
 Religion
is still officially illegal, but is
tolerated today as long as not a threat to CCP!
 Falun
Gong (religion)- 1999 CCP banned
religion & began national crackdown.