Forensics Unit 1 Notes Evidence Testimonial Evidence Chapter 2 – Types of Evidence

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Forensics Unit 1 Notes

Chapter 2 – Types of Evidence

Evidence

- Something that tends to establish or disprove a fact. Evidence can include documents, testimony, and other objects

I.

Testimonial Evidence

- what is said in court (under oath) by a competent witness; also called direct evidence or

prima facie

evidence a.

Competent- Having the necessary ability, knowledge, or skill to do something successfully b.

Research has found that witnesses remember certain facts better than others i.

A witness that is physically similar to the offender is more likely to give an accurate description c.

d.

e.

Victims of serious crimes remember facts for longer periods of time

Other physical factors or witnesses affect accuracy of observations

Interviewing techniques differ accuracy of eyewitness accounts

II.

Physical Evidence

- tangible items that tend to prove some material fact; also called real evidence a.

b.

Transient evidence

- temporary; easily changed or lost; usually observed by the first officer at the scene. i.

odor

Pattern evidence

is produced by direct contact between a person and an object or between two c.

d.

objects. i.

Blood spatter

Conditional evidence

is produced by a specific event or action; important in crime scene reconstruction and in determining the set of circumstances or sequence within a particular event. i.

Body – (temp…)

Transfer evidence

is produced by contact between person(s) and object(s), or between person(s) and person(s). i.

Paint / blood on a car e.

Associative evidence

is something that may associate a victim or suspect with a scene or with each other; e.g., personal belongings. i.

soil f.

Value of physical evidence i.

MMO ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Back up testimony

Link suspect

Identify victim or suspect

Reconstruction of crime

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