Criminal Investigation Part 1

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Criminal Investigation

Part 1

1.

Fundamentals of Investigation

A systematic, methodical, and detailed inquiry into the past and present

2.

Corpus Delicti – elements of a crime

3.

Act and Intent – the crime committed and with purpose

4.

Degree of crime – what charge to file

5.

Investigation must prove each element

1.

Modus Operandi

Characteristic way a criminal commits a specific crime

2.

Provide clues in both obvious and less obvious crimes

3.

They are beneficial

4.

Do not have decisiveness of past

1.

Two Types of Investigations

Preliminary investigation

- first officer on scene

- minor crime: investigates

- major crime: secure scene

2.

Follow-up investigation

- by detectives

- by patrol officers

- builds on what was learned

- during preliminary investigation

1.

Investigation

Radio call to officer

- time of day / weather / daylight / artificial lighting

2.

Safe to enter

- suspect not at crime scene

3.

Render first aid

- show pathway to victim

- for medical professionals

- crime scene technicians

- other volunteers

4.

Investigation, cont.

Protect scene

- all non-essential people

- police administrators

- the press

- family members

5.

Identify witnesses

- be sure to get I.D. from people that have information

- keep driver’s license, if necessary

1.

Identity of Suspect

Locate witnesses

- eyewitness

- people who saw a possible suspect

- saw suspect vehicle

2.

Identify victim

- contact family and friends

- try to find last person who saw victim alive

3.

Check local and state files

- M.O. files / computer files / fingerprints

1.

Primary Types of Evidence

Direct evidence

- “I saw, I heard, I smelled, I tasted” a. Includes: fingerprints / DNA / ballistics / dental comparisons / handwriting samples b. Testimony by expert witnesses

2.

Circumstantial evidence

- shoe impressions / tire tracks / types of clothing / vehicle / etc.

1.

Arrest of Suspect

Take into custody (probable cause)

2.

Drive-by: witness to identify

3.

Advise of rights

4.

Note “ spontaneous

” remarks

5.

Interrogation of suspect

- confession / admission / denial

1.

Recovery of Property

Search of suspect

- person / within arm’s reach

2.

Search of vehicle

- unlocked containers

- tow vehicle

3.

Search warrant

- written waiver from owner

- search warrant is best

1.

Identification of Suspect

Drive-by

- victim / witness observes

2.

Photo array

- 6 to 8 photographs

- similar in appearance

3.

Line-up

- minimum: 5 / maximum: 7

- similar in build: height / weight

- facial features / hair color

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