Sex, Gender, and Culture

Sex, Gender, and
Learning Objectives
 Distinguish between developed and developing
 Describe the different developmental approaches
and how they have influenced women.
 Identify reasons for women’s migration.
 Demonstrate an understanding of the assigned
readings by critically analyzing the main
What is Development?
Development is the process of becoming
“modernized” and “globalized”
Designation of a country as developed,
developing, or underdeveloped (along with
other terms) depends on which organization
(WTO, UN, IMF) is categorizing them.
Terms from the UN Development Program webpage
Development Terminology
Often Economic Basis for designation:
Developing nation – non-industrialized
Note: may also be called ‘third world’
Developed nation – industrialized and
market based
Feminism and Development
 Invisibility of women in economic development
 Criticisms of traditional programs
 Ex: ____________________
Miller, 2010, Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World
African woman signs for credit
Welfare Approach to
Targets women as mothers
Encourages Western _____________
Ex: _____________________________
Women in Development
 Top-down approach
 Women not consulted, empowered
 Types of WID projects
 Ex: _______________________
Jaquette & Staudt, 2006, Women, Gender, and Development
Gender and Development
Bottom-up approach
Difficult to implement
Gender mainstreaming
Ex: ______________
Machines Make
Lazy Women’
Housing in Soweto, South Africa
 How do washing machines connect to gender
 How has the washing machine become a symbol
to reinforce gender roles?
Material culture and gender: Where you
surprised by this connection?
Women and Migration:
Feminization of Migration
 Problems faced by migrant women are
compounded by their being both women and
 Can you think of some unique problems faced by
Migration and Women: Gulf States
 Female migrants workers continue to increase in %
within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
 Since 1995, ________________________________________
Saudi Arabia:
n, 2005, para. 6)
Migration and Women – Somali
 Since early 1990s, women have fled ___________
Many remain in ______________in other African
USA (OH, MN), Canada, Europe, Australia
 Differences between _________________________
Influence of ___________________________
Opportunities in other countries_________
__________________________________(Gundel, 2002)
Assigned Reading
1. What is meant by colonial feminism?
2. What is the American perception of the burqa
and how does that differ from the way women
who wear the garment perceive its meaning?
3. How do the concepts of ethnocentrism and
cultural relativism relate to Abu-Lughod's