Early New England Colonies

Calvinism inspired by Puritan Reformation
◦ Foundation for Puritanism, Scottish Presbyterians, French
Huguenots and Dutch Reformed
◦ All groups were significant players in colonization of
Henry VIII separated from Catholic Church but kept many
Catholic ways
Wanted to “purify” Church of England
◦ Get rid of “Catholic” traditions
◦ Emphasize literacy and Bible study
◦ Appealed to poor
◦ Puritans who wanted to split from Church of England
◦ Only wanted the “visible saints” allowed into the church
King James I
◦ Tried to force all English to follow his religion
◦ Afraid challenge in religion would lead to challenge politics
Separatists fled to Holland
Left Sept 16 1620, 102 passengers
Separatists did not want to be
influenced by Dutch culture
arrived December 21st
Landed at Cape Cod
wrong location so did not have
legal right to make a
Was outside of the charter
given to the Virginia
Pilgrims would use Bible as
their laws
Made a government for settlers
◦ William Bradford – Governor
 Feared non-Separatists would corrupt the colony
◦ Captain Miles Standish – head the militia
Pledged loyalty to King and follow laws
Agreed to follow the will of majority
Precedent of self-government in American colonies
Wampanoag Indian
Most of his people had been killed
Had been kidnapped by English sea captain then
Learned English
When Pilgrims arrived, they found Squanto
Squanto’s help
• Facilitated peace treaty between
Massasoit and the Pilgrims
• Worked as interpreter
• Showed how to plant corn, fertilize soil,
trap beaver
• Showed where to fish
First Thanksgiving celebrated first
successful harvest in 1621
1629 Charles I allowed Archbishop William Laud to
persecute Puritans
◦ Led to non-Separatist Puritans wanting to leave England
Charter was vague
◦ Allowed Puritans to create headquarters in Massachusetts
◦ Allowed Puritans to make their own laws and officers
 effect: settlers govern themselves
Great Migration 1630-1642
◦ 70,000 Puritans left England
 20,000 to New England
Congregational Church
◦ Puritan church in America
◦ Needed membership to vote
Town government open to all property owners
◦ Increased public participation in
Was NOT democracy
◦ Feared “common” people interfering with
establishment of society built on Puritan
John Winthrop was first governor
◦ Were wealthy, educated
◦ Communities were built around a church (congregation)
No Religious toleration
◦ Must be a Puritan
“City Upon a Hill”
John Winthrop
Colony would be an example for the rest of the world
Believed that God would insure the success of colony
◦ Gave Puritans strength to survive bad times and dangers
◦ Argued for complete split from Church of England
◦ Said state could not legislate religious behavior
 Massachusetts government was based on
◦ Massachusetts Bay charter illegal because settlers
took land from Indians
Expelled from Massachusetts in 1635
Challenged Puritan teachings
◦ Antinomianism
 Since life is predestined, people are under no obligation
to follow edicts of either church or government
Was convicted of heresy and banished from Massachusetts
in 1638
moved to Rhode Island
Eventually went to New York and was killed by Indians
Epidemic in 1621 killed
most Indians around
Pequot War 1637
English and
Narragansett fought
against Pequot
English annihilate
•Metacom (King Philip) 1675 created
Indian alliance to resist spread of English
–Attacked 52 Puritan towns
–War ended, Metacom defeated
–Indian survivors forced to move onto
–Ended Indian threat to New England
Netherlands became major commercial
power following independence from Spain
◦ 1609 Hudson sails for Dutch in Hudson
Valley and Canada
◦ 1626 purchase Manhattan
◦ 1628 Dutch take Caribbean Islands from
Spain and Brazil and Indian Ocean ports
from Portugal
◦ Dutch East and West India Companies led
most trade and had own armies
◦ Becomes banking capital of Europe
New Amsterdam (New York City)
– Bought Manhattan for $24
– Was run solely for Dutch West India
Company’s interests
– Very autocratic
– Dutch would trade with anyone
– Wanted to make money
New Netherlands were vulnerable because surrounded
by British colonies
King Charles of England gave land including New
Netherland to Duke of York in 1664
Duke of York sent fleet to make Dutch surrender
◦ Dutch surrender without a fight
◦ Stuyvesant did not have ammunition to fight
Growth was limited due to aristocratic tendencies and
corrupt governors that allowed for power to be
concentrated in hands of a few families
Quakers – Society of Friends
◦ Wouldn’t pay taxes to Anglican Church
◦ Treated everyone as equals
◦ Rejected authority of priests, ministers
◦ Followed “inner light”
◦ Believed in equality, pacifism
◦ Spoke out against slavery
William Penn
◦ King Charles II grants land to Penn as repayment for
loan in 1681
◦ Pennsylvania created for haven for persecuted
people and to experiment with a more liberal
◦ Advertised broadly for settlers
 Encouraged artisans to settle
Paid Indians for the land for Philadelphia
◦ Resulted in positive relations
New York, New Jersey, Delaware,
Soil was fertile and broad, allowed
for growth of grain
“Bread Basket Colonies”
Rivers and deep harbors
encouraged trade
Delaware, Hudson, Susquehanna
Forests led to timber, furniture and
Economy balanced between trade
and farming
Ethnically mixed
Largest amounts of religious
tolerance and democracy
Good land was available
The Settlements of the Lower South
This map shows the towns and fortifications of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, as well as the overlapping
claims by the Spanish and the English to the territory south and west of Fort King George. The many Georgia forts reflect
that colony's role as a buffer state between rice-rich South Carolina and the Spanish troops stationed in Florida.
Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733
◦ Savannah was principle port
Created as place to send criminals, drunk and idle poor
Served as barrier to Spanish and French settlements
Allowed religious toleration for Christians except Catholics
King Charles granted land to supporters in 1670
Made wealth from trading food with sugar plantations of
◦ Also traded Indian slaves to West Indies and New England
Rice becomes major export
◦ Slaves from West Africa had the expertise to allow growth
of rice
Charleston becomes busiest seaport in South
◦ North was mostly discontented Virginians, seen as
independent and rebellious
◦ South was aristocratic, wealth, plantation driven
◦ 1712, Carolinas split
◦ Charleston, S. C. and major harbor
Planters saw
themselves as
English country
not Americans