Chapter 3 Notes

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Chapter 3

Settling the Northern Colonies

1619-1700

Protestant Reformation

• Martin Luther- Wittenberg’s Cathedral

1517

• John Calvin (Calvinists)= “predestined”

 visible saints

• Henry VIII and the Church of England

– Puritans wanted to “purify”

Pilgrims (Separatists)

• Left for Holland 1608

Dutchification

• Left for Virginia (1620), ended up in New

England

• Mayflower Compact (41 adult malesmostly non- Separatists)

• Deadly first winter

Thanksgiving

• William Bradford (governor)

Carefully restored, the modest village at Plymouth looks today much as it did nearly four hundred years ago.

Sources of the Puritan “Great Migration” to New Eng land, 1620–1650

Massachusetts Bay Colony

• Charles I= crackdown on Puritans (1629)= new charter

• Great Migration of 1630’s

• John Winthrop (1 st governor), “City Upon a Hill” mixed with economic prosperity

• Suffrage= 2/5 of men (Congregationalists)

• God’s Law, Protestant Work Ethic

The Great English Migration, ca. 1630

–1642

Much of the early history of the United States was written by New Englanders, who were not disposed to emphasize the larger exodus of English migrants to the Caribbean islands. When the mainland colonists declared in dependence in 1776, they hoped that these island outposts would join them, but the existence of the British navy had a dissuading effect.

Trouble in the Bible

Commonwealth

• Social harmony, no dissenters

• Quakers flogged, expelled, executed

• Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williamsbanished

• Rhode Island “Sewer”= all welcomed

– Chartered in 1644

Anne Hutchinson, Dissenter

Mistress Hutchinson (1591

–1643) held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clergy and the very integrity of the Puritan experiment in the

Massachusetts Bay Colony. An outcast in her day, she has been judged a heroine in the eye of history.

This statue in her honor, erected in the nineteenth century, now graces the front of the Boston,

Massachusetts, Statehouse.

Seventeenth-Century New

England Settlements

Puritans vs. Indians

• ¾ of tribes dead before Pilgrims

• Wampanoag= treaty (Chief Massasoit,

Squanto- interpreter)

• More settlers= hostile relations

• 1637 Pequot War

• Pan Indian alliance

• 1675 Metacom (King Philip’s War)= last resistance

Colonial Independence

• New England Confederation 1643

• Semi-autonomous

• Restoration of Charles II= punishment for Bay

Colony

• Dominion of New England (London imposed)

Navigation Laws

• Sir Edmund Andros

Glorious Revolution

• “Salutary neglect” under William & Mary

Dutch Residue in NY

• New Netherlands ≠ 1 st priority

• Charles II granted land to Duke of York

• Control down to Carolinas

• Cultural holdovers (aristocratic)

Quaker Pennsylvania and

Neighbors

• Quakers= more simple, persecuted

• William Penn

 land grant 1681

• Tried peaceful Indian relations (outsiders overruled)

• Representative assembly with male landowners

• Grew rapidly

• New Jersey and Delaware

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