French and Indian War PPT

The French and Indian
Scramble for Territory
Rivalry among European Nations for
Control of N. America began early
English built settlements along
eastern seacoast during 1600s
French explored farther inland,
claimed territory to the Rocky Mtns
Conflict erupted due to overlapping
Boundaries of
War Begins
In 1754, English colonists of Virginia
attempted to take a French Fort (Fort
Duquesne) at the forks of the Ohio River
Led by a young Major George Washington
Thus began the French and Indian War
French and Indian allies fought against the
British and American Colonists
Colonies Unify to Fight a Common
June, 1754, delegates from several
English colonies met in Albany, N.Y.
Attempted to work out unified war effort
in northern colonies
Ben Franklin, a Pennsylvania delegate,
offered a plan for permanent union of the
• Albany Plan of Union
• Grand council of delegates from each colony
• Ultimately rejected, but served as model for
the later govt. of the U.S.
British Turn the Tide of War
War initially goes poorly for British
1758, French retreat into New France
Iroquois decide that French cause is
hopeless, shift sides
1759, British invade New France and
capture Quebec
Treaty of Paris - 1763
Ended the French and Indian War
France gave New France East of
Mississippi River to Britain
France gave New France West of
Mississippi River to Spain
British returned Cuba in exchange for
Despite Victory, Relations are
British thought colonists did not
provide enough support
War was long and costly
Britain had fought to protect them
Colonists shocked by the weakness
of British military tactics
British would not allow colonial
officers to lead their troops
French no longer held territory west
of the Appalachians
Tensions with Native Americans
After war, increased interest in Great
Lakes region and Ohio River valley
Alarmed natives rebelled in 1763
(Pontiac’s Rebellion)
To help restore peace, George III
issued Proclamation of 1763
• Closed area west of Appalachians
• Placed under control of British military
Sugar Act
Britain acquired huge debts during
Sugar Act 1764 – marked start of a
new British policy designed to raise $
Parliament issued new rules to
enforce the act
• Smuggling cases tried in Britain
• By a judge, not a jury
• Judges received commissions on illegal
cargoes and fines
Quartering Act
1765, colonies required to provide
housing and supplies for the British
troops who remained
Some complained, but most went
along with it
Stamp Act Crisis
Stamp Act (March, 1765) – tax on
newspapers, legal documents, most
printed materials
Official govt. stamp had to appear on
these materials to show tax was paid
1st tax that was clearly intended to
raise $ w/ no regulation of trade
Stamp Act Crisis
In October, delegates from 9
colonies met as Stamp Act Congress
Main organizer was James Otis
• “No taxation w/out representation”
• Sent petitions/letters to King/Parliament
Merchants boycotted British goods
British merchants angered
Groups (Sons/Daughters of Liberty)
No one to sell stamps in America
1766-Parliament repealed Stamp Act