“In this corner …” France and England go at it. Worldwide competition Starting in 1689. Total of four wars. Indecisive. Fourth war: Seven Years’ War in Europe. French and Indian War in North America. French and Indian War 1754-1763 1754. Washington and militiamen start the war over the Ohio country. Early victories for the French. Braddock defeated at Fort Duquesne. Concentrated Indian attacks. The turning point 1757 William Pitt becomes Prime Minister of England. Redoubles war effort in North America. 1759. General Wolfe captures Quebec. Importance? General Amherst captures Montreal. Importance? Meanwhile …. Frederick the Great (Prussian) beats up on the French, Spanish, Austrians and Russians. Importance? Albany Plan: Unify the Iroquois against the French. Unify the colonies. (Franklin) Wasn’t accepted. Hostilities end Treaty of Paris (1763) Eliminated France as a colonial power in North America. Britain gets Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) and Florida from Spain. ?? Spain gets Orleans and W. of La. Results of the F and I War. On the colonies: Gained self-confidence and military experience. Saw the need for colonial unity. Had the danger of attack by the French and Indians removed. This therefore: ???? On Britain The war led Britain to neglect the colonies. This allowed for the: exercise of virtual self-gov’t and the ability to evade British mercantilist restrictions on the colonial economy. Britain believed the colonies: 1. Had not cooperated enough during the war. 2. Had gained too much from the victory. 3. Should have to pay for the costs of the war. Pontiac 1763. Ottawa chief Pontiac leads a campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley. Defeated by arms and disease. British saw the need to stabilize relations with the Indians and to station troops in the colonies. Get outta my face…. The Proclamation of 1763. Prohibited settlement in the areas beyond the Appalachians. Reserved for the Indians. Secure the fur trade and stop Indian uprisings. Also sought to prevent the colonists from being out of British reach. What did they do? Large migration on the westward trials that led through North Carolina. Attitudinal response.