Chapter 12 Transformation Around the World

Chapter 12
Transformation Around the
Honors World History
C. Simmons
Chapter 12 Section 1
China Resist Outside Influence
China and the West
China able to resist due to self-sufficiency
The tea-opium connection
Opium use was medical until Europeans
brought in opium for non-medical use
The Opium Wars
Led to British Control of Hong Kong
Extraterritorial Rights @ trade ports
Growing Internal Problems
• Problems with population growth – food
• Taiping Rebellion – Heavenly Kingdom of
Great Peace
• Fueding in the government led to constant
fighting over 20 million died
Foreign Influence Grows
• Resistance to change – most people supported
traditional ways
• Many European countries and Japan gained
strong footholds in China
• Sphere of influence – area in which foreigners
controlled trade & investment
• Led to the Open Door Policy
Chinese Nationalism
• Humiliated with loss of power Guangxu wants
modernizes China
• This threatens Qing power they arrest Guangxu
• The Boxer Rebellion – “Death to the foreign
Devils” attack on Beijing, led o feelings of
• Led to restructuring of government
Chapter 12 Section 2
Modernization in Japan
Japan ends Isolation
• Japan remained isolated until visit of Matthew
Perry – threatened Tokugawa shogunate for free
trade b/t US and Japan
• Meiji Reforms (modernization)– copied British
Navy and German military and industry and US
education system
• Japan became competitive with the West
Imperial Japan
• Modernization improved Japan’s military now
the strongest in Asia
• Japan attacks Korea led to Sino-Japanese War Japan drove China out of Korea
• Change in balance of power in Asia
• Russia becomes concerned
Imperial Japan (cont)
• Russo-Japanese War – fight over control of
• Japan destroys Russia Pacific and Baltic Fleets,
Russia decides to go for peace
• Japanese control of Korea
• Japanese occupation was brutal and ignored by
the rest of the world
• Korean nationalist Movement began
Chapter 12 Section 3
U.S. Economic
Latin America After Independence
• Colonial legacy of the peonage system kept
landowners wealthy and workers nothing more
than slaves
• Political instability led by the caudillos or
military dictators led to conflict
• Caudillos faced little opposition, land owners
supported them
• Voting rights were also restricted to upper class
an wealthy in other governing countries
Economies grow under foreign
• Imported manufactured goods so no
development of industry, exported perishable
• Mismanagement of investment led to debt to
foreign powers
• Foreign take over of industries
Latin American Empire
• US concern for security led to the….
• Monroe Doctrine – No European powers are
allowed to colonize any land in Western
• Little effort to enforce until Cuban
• Jose Marti led rebellion failed and exiled to US
Latin American Empire (cont)
• US economic stake in Cuba led to Spanish- American
War - Two front war in Philippines and Cuba, Spanish
were quickly defeated
• Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines became US
• Panama was next focus because of strategic location
(Panama Canal)
• US provoked revolution and controlled canal building
• Roosevelt Corollary – US had right to be police power
in Latin America, extension of M. Doctrine
Chapter 12 Section 4
Turmoil & Change in Mexico
Santa Anna & Mexican War
• Santa Anna became Latin America’s most
powerful caudillo (early 1800’s)
• Texas Revolt – Mexico encouraged settlement,
settlers wanted self government, Mexican army
moved North won several battles
• The Alamo
• Mexican-American War loss doomed Santa
Anna, lost territory
Juarez & La Reforma
• Juarez reputation of honesty, integrity, hard
work fueled his rise to power (mid 1800’s)
• La Reforma – separation of church and state,
redistribution of land, increased educational
• Continued struggle for control b/t conservatives
and liberals
• French invasion/occupation slowed reforms
Porfirio Diaz and “Order & Stability”
• Diaz most powerful caudillo of his time,
elections were meaningless, Diaz played favors
(late 1800’s)
• Followed Juarez with one distinct difference of
no liberty
• Use of dictatorial powers ensured order, but lef
most Mexicans poor and hungry
Revolution & Civil War
• Francisco Madero began Revolution against Diaz
• Slow start as Pancho Villa in North and Zapata in
• Revolution became very violent and Diaz stepped
down, Madero was elected in 1911 but was later
• Victoriano Huerta became president but shortly after
he was ousted and Carranza would take power in 1919
to end Civil War after murdering Zapata
• Carranza passed revisions to mexico’s constituiton in
1917 – still in use today, reforms in land, workers
rights, p.393