Causes of WWII in the Pacific Causes, Practices and Effects of War Historical debate of Japan’s responsibility Japan as aggressor Japan planned the war from 1930’s Japan’s willingness to negotiate was a plan to keep enemy off guard Aggressor- aim to conquer Asia Japanese declaration of war blamed US- Japan wanted to liberate Asia from Western domination Japan as imperial power European style imperialism Japan didn’t plan for war, just took too many risks Japan was creating a sphere of influence (like US did in Latin America) Japan fought a defensive war- triggered by US embargoes. They had to act TIMELINE of Events prior to Pacific War See textbook p. 130 1919- Versailles Treaty confirms Japan’s war gains 1926- Hirohito becomes Emperor 1931- Kwantung Army invades Manchuria 1936- Japan rejects fundamental objectives, signs Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany 1937- Jun- Konoe Fumimora becomes Prime Minister Aug- Japan captures Shangai Dec- rape of Nanjing 1939- Japan blockades Britain in Tientsin 1940- Sep- Tripartite German-Italian- Japanese Axis 1941- Mar- Signs non-aggression treaty with Soviets Dec- bombing of Pearl Harbor Background Info Mid 17th Century Japan is isolated from outside world American Commodore Mathew Perry arrives in 1853 (wants to open up trade) Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)- opening up to the outside world Improves military Defeat China in the SinoJapanese War (1894-95) Defeat Russia in 1905 with Britain's support (AngloJapanese Alliance) Read pages 131- 142 In groups answer the question assigned to you- fill in the Essay Outline- be prepared to present your answers To what extent was Japan pursuing nationalist and imperialist goals? How far was the military the driving force in Japan’s foreign policy by 1940? To what extent was the USA responsible for the war in the Pacific? How far can Hirohito be held responsible for the causes of the war between Japan and the USA in 1941? Long term causes WWI- Japan wants to increase its influence 1915 US and Japan relations sour Japan insists on political and economic position in China US sees this as a threat to their interests Long term causes 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement—Japan could keep the gains they made up to 1917 (recognized by US) but no more allowed China feels betrayed by US Maintained or gained land after Versailles Lack of foreign trade increases Japanese self reliance= economic boom Britain and US mistrust Japan Short term causes Sino-Japanese conflict 1937 Marco Polo bridge in Beijing—nationalism high— fighting. Large scale fighting—need for raw materials—war with US War with China leads to a complete takeover of Japanese government by the military Immediate cause of war in Pacific US wants Japan out of China • 1940 US bans exports of scrap iron to Japan • Japan must import raw materials to sustain war (heavily dependent on US) Tripartite Pact • Germany, Italy, Japan- “New order”, come to defense • US gives loans to China, political parties eliminated in Japan Japan divided • Attack USSR or South-east Asia? (Germany attacks USSR, so they go south) • Leads to US, Britain, Netherlands embargo • Japan will run out of oil= Pearl Harbor Japan’s relationships Germany USSR as enemy Tripartite Pact (keep US out of war) Hitler declares war on US 11 December 1941 USSR Friendly with Russia After revolution (USSR) Japan feels threatened territorially and ideologically USSR supplied China 1941 Germany and USSR hostile- Japan relaxes- sign Neutrality Pact with USSR Soviets declare war on Japan Aug 1945 TO WHAT EXTENT WAS JAPAN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC?